Author: Craig Owen

Wales Uniting Nations: Building a Better World after World War 2

On 8 May 2020, Wales and the world mark #VE75, the 75th Anniversary of VE Day – the end of World War Two in Europe. Over 15,000 Welsh men and women lost their lives in WW2, out of an estimated 75 million globally; and the horrors of the Holocaust and of Hiroshima have defined generations to this day. But out of the ashes of WW2 emerged the United Nations, and many of the institutions of global cooperation that, in the 75 years since, have prevented another world war to date – despite nuclear proliferation, the Cold War and many conflicts that could have escalated even further without the machinery of human cooperation. Beyond the Bunting and Lindy Hop dances, Remembrance on VE Day should give pause to appreciate perhaps the greatest gift of the WW2 generation: the United Nations.

However, a little known aspect – one of Wales’ ‘hidden histories’ – is just how involved Welsh men and women became in shaping the ‘new world order’ after World War Two. Whilst WCIA hope to uncover more over 2020-23 as we mark UN75 – the 75th Anniversary of the United Nations, here we share just a few of their stories.

Building on the League of Nations

During the interwar years between WW1 and WW2, Wales’ peace building movement had become woven into the fabric of Welsh society; over 800 communities had local branches of the Welsh League of Nations Union, with many thousands of campaigners Wales-wide actively advocating for internationalism through annual Daffodil Days, the 1935 ‘Peace Ballot’, and culminating in the opening in 1938 of Wales’ Temple of Peace and Health by founder Lord David Davies alongside WW1-bereaved mothers. The Temple had been intended as a headquarters ‘befitting to international cooperation’ – and yet, within months of its opening, the world’s deadliest war had consumed a generation and swept aside all international order. Had the efforts of Wales’ post-WW1 peacemakers all been in vain?

David Davies at the opening of Wales’ Temple of Peace, Nov 1938.

Lord David Davies, founder of the Temple of Peace, League of Nations Union and of the world’s first Department of International Politics (at Aberystwyth University) tragically did not live to see the post-WW2 peace he had spent his whole life working for; he passed in June 1944, months before his son and heir Michael Davies was also killed in action leading the liberation of Eindhoven, Holland. Lord Davies had spent his last years writing propitiously on possibilities for a post-war international order, a ‘United Nations’ machinery with an ‘international police force’, an ‘equity tribunal’ (international court, furthering human rights) and supporters’ associations mobilising the peoples of every land.

However, the widespread internationalism garnered Wales-wide over 20 years by the Welsh League of Nations Union, had fostered a whole ‘new generation of Welsh internationalists’ who would shape the post-WW2 landscape of peace building and global cooperation. A perhaps disproportionate cohort were among the founders and leaders of many of the international agencies that came into being following WW2, as people sought to build a better world – and to learn the lessons of the failed post-WW1 peace process that had created the conditions for World War 2 in the first place.

“Those who want peace, it is said, prepare for war. Those who are already at war, prepare for peace. So, before the second world war was even halfway through, debate began about the new organisation which was to be established at its end.”

Evan Luard, History of the United Nations

The First United Nations

Jan 1 1942: Signing in Washington of the Atlantic Charter, the ‘Declaration of United Nations’ (Wikipedia Commons)

Proposals for a United Nations had been floated from 1941 among the WW2 Allied Powers – UK, USA, Soviet Union and China – with the name itself promoted by President Roosevelt of the US on 1 Jan 1942.

The task of pulling together a Secretariat for a fledgling United Nations was delegated to Gladwyn Jebb of the Foreign Office – who became the UN’s First Secretary General – supported by Welsh Economist David Owen, Assistant to the Lord Privy Seal (Sir Stafford Cripps).

David Owen, founder of UN Secretariat and UN Development Programme

“I was Jebb’s deputy,” Sir David recounted. “He turned to me and announced: I’ll handle the high diplomacy; you take on the rest. Find an office and a secretary and get this thing started.” ‘This thing’ was a world organization formed by 51 war time allies without a staff or money – and only a promise that it could make London its temporary home.

David rushed back to London to borrow a typewriter from the Foreign Office and a secretary from the War Office. “Together in a taxi we leaded for Church House in Westminster, and knocked on the door. The old custodian peered at us across barricade of sandbags and demanded to know who we were.

“‘We are the United Nations,’ I remember answering. And that was the beginning.”

David financed the early days of United Nations operations with a £30 loan from his London bank account. “We lived on that £30 for almost two weeks in 1945.”

New York Times Obituary of David Owen, June 1970

David Owen went on to found the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).

1st UN General Assembly Welcome Programme from Temple of Peace Archives

The First UN General Assembly (UNGA)

The first United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) was held in the Methodist Central Hall, London from 10 January 1946, bringing together representatives of 51 nations.

A ‘British Welcome’ staged at the Royal Albert Hall had a distinctly Welsh flavour. The programme was fronted by the Choir of Wales’ Temple of Peace, performing 6 songs in total – including ‘Nos Galon’ and ‘Men of Harlech’.

1945 Leaflet for the Temple of Peace Choir
Megan Lloyd George, Wales 1st female Member of Parliament

The keynote address was delivered by Lady Megan Lloyd George, daughter of the WW1 Prime Minister and Wales’ first female Member of Parliament, for Anglesey (and later Carmarthen).

The event closed with 51 nations singing “These Things Shall Be” by composer John Hughes.

The first UNGA lasted 5 weeks in total, and at its conclusion on February 14 1946 had established the UN General Assembly, the UN Security Council, UN Economic and Social Council, the International Court of Justice, and elected Trygve Lie, Foreign Secretary of Norway, as the UN’s first elected Secretary General.

Creating a ‘World Education Organisation’: the origins of UNESCO

Gwilym Davies, League of Nations / UNA Wales’ 1st President, and one of the founders of UNESCO

“Since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed.”

Jacob Jones, Chairman of WEAC, 1929 – now the opening lines of the UNESCO Constitution, and quoted by (and often attributed to) UK Prime Minister Sir Clement Attlee at the founding of UNESCO in 1946.

Gwilym Davies, Honorary Director of the Welsh League of Nations Union from 1922 (and UNA Wales’ 1st President, from 1945) had long advocated Welsh efforts in the field of world education. 32 leading Welsh educationalists, alongside teachers Wales-wide, had set up the ‘Wales Education Advisory Committee’ (WEAC) from 1922 to develop ‘the world’s first global citizenship curriculum’ – supported by the Davies sisters of Gregynog Hall, and leading thinkers of the day such as Gilbert Murray, who headed the UK League of Nations movement.

From 1930, the Central Welsh Board (CWB – now the WJEC) became the first Education Authority in the world to integrate the principles of the League of Nations into teaching in schools – a move which projected Wales to international recognition, and led to ‘the Welsh model’ being held up and adopted by educationalists worldwide eager to instil a culture of engaged and informed internationalism among their societies. WLNU established a Women’s Advisory Committee, chaired by Annie Hughes Griffiths – who had led the 1923 Welsh Women’s Peace Petition to America – to involve Welsh women in promoting peace education Wales and world-wide.

Annie Hughes Griffiths

In January 1941, Prof Murray chaired a conference at Oxford to which he invited Gwilym Davies to present a paper, drawing on the interwar experiences of the WEAC, advocating the idea of establishing a post-war international organisation for education. This paper was to have a profound impact on shaping the thinking of the British – and Allied – governments, and in 1943 the London International Assembly and newly established CEWC (Council for Education in World Citizenship) delegated two tasks to Wales:

  1. To conduct a survey / study of global intellectual cooperation between the wars
  2. To draft a model constitution for an international organisation for education

Gwilym Davies’ proposals informed discussions across the Atlantic among the movements that led directly to the creation of UNESCO – the United Nations Education, Scientific and Cultural Organisation.

The first UNESCO conference was held in Paris in November-December 1946. Attending proceedings, Gwilym Davies reported back to Wales:

Ben Bowen Thomas, Chair of UNESCO

“(UNESCO)… was unlike any other conference I have attended, with writers, thinkers, educationalists and scientists present from 24 countries. They are the true creators of public opinion.”

Gwilym Davies

Gwilym Davies was nominated to the Board of UNESCO; his Vice-President within the newly established CEWC Cymru (Council for Education in World Citizenship, founded Jan 1944) was Ben Bowen Thomas from Treorchy in the Rhondda. Later Sir Ben, he became active with UNESCO from 1946-1962, and Chairman of UNESCO’s Executive Board in Paris from 1958.

‘We, the Peoples’: the United Nations Association

Between the wars, the Welsh League of Nations Union (WLNU) had been one of Wales’ biggest membership organisations, with over 30,000 peace campaigners active in 1,000 communities. Although membership had fallen – and activities suspended with the onset of WW2 – a network of groups and advocates remained. WLNU Annual Reports produced between 1939 and 1946 offer an insight into work undertaken in the background of war. 

The WLNU reconvened following WW2 for their final Annual Conference at the Temple of Peace on October 27 1945. They proposed to ‘ring out the old, ring in the new’ in immediately becoming the United Nations Association (Wales), or UNA Welsh National Council.

UN Charter Commemorative Stamp – Wikimedia Commons

UNA Wales’ first Executive Committee met in Shrewsbury on Feb 1 1946, and produced their first Annual Report covering the whole 1943-1946 transition period. The first UNA Wales Conference and AGM was held at the Guildhall, Wrexham on May 31 1948. In August 1946, Gwilym Davies assisted in organisation of the first World Federation of United Nations Associations in Luxembourg, establishing 5 commissions and a UN grassroots movement: “We, the Peoples…” – echoing the opening words of the United Nations Charter.

UNA Wales produced their first post-war ‘Bulletin’ (above) in 1949 – emerging from 4 years of continued rationing and paper shortages – which casts light on the challenges of re-establishing a campaigning network, and of the activities of local branches.

Sept 1945 Cover of UNA’s ‘Headway’ magazine

UNA Wales became Wales’ leading network of community groups campaigning on internationalism, human rights, security and global development through the 1950s and 1960s; and continued as a national body until the decision was taken in 2014, alongside CEWC Cymru, to pool resources and merge into WCIA – the Welsh Centre for International Affairs. UNA Cardiff and UNA Menai branches continue to organise local activities in 2020, and many branches have a rich history of local activism.  

International Youth Volunteering and post-WW2 Reconstruction

Robert Davies and friends digging a soakaway in Austria, 1960.

The demands of post-WW2 reconstruction both in Britain and across Europe, and the desire to mobilise young people in healing the wounds of war by fostering understanding through relationships with other communities and cultures, led UNA UK and UNA Wales to link with the ‘World Forum of Youth’ out of which gradually emerged the UNA International Youth Service (IYS) movement.

By the mid-1950s, substantial parts of Europe’s population remained displaced, refugees often within their own countries. Through IYS, youth volunteers from Wales and all over the UK participated in work camps supporting the construction of housing and community facilities, from Austria to Greece. One of those volunteers in the 1950-60s was Robert Davies from Port Talbot, who lived through the Cardiff Blitz during WW2 while his parents worked in the steelworks.

Robert’s experience of participating in an international workcamp in Austria inspired him to become a lifelong champion of youth volunteering between Wales and the world. He sett up VCS (the Cardiff Volunteer Service bureau) in 1965, and then UNA Exchange in 1973 – which continues to operate today from the Temple of Peace, as an integral part of the WCIA’s work, aiming to inspire a new generation of internationalists with the challenges of global cooperation today.

UNA Exchange International Volunteers enjoying a 2015 youth workcamp at the Temple of Peace, renovating Wales’ National Garden of Peace.


Remembering for Peace: The Story of Wales’ WW2 Book of Remembrance

WCIA’s home, the Temple of Peace and Health, was founded as Wales’ memorial to the fallen of the Great War – 35,000 souls commemorated in the WW1 Book of Remembrance , held in the Crypt of the Temple (and searchable online). But few people know that there is also a WW2 Book of Remembrance – held for safe keeping within the archive collections of the National Museum of Wales. Ahead of VE Day 75, Craig Owen uncovers the story of Wales’ WW2 Book of Remembrance.

On Friday 8th May 2020, Wales, the UK and much of the world will pause to reflect on one of the greatest tragedies of the past century, as we mark the 75th Anniversary of the end of World War 2 in Europe on 8th May 1945 – ‘Victory in Europe’ Day, or VE Day 75. Over 15,000 Welsh men and women lost their lives in WW2, out of an estimated 75 million globally; and the horrors of the Holocaust and of Hiroshima, as a terrifying ‘nuclear age’ dawned, would define generations to this day.

The Temple of Peace in WW2

Poignantly, Wales’ Temple of Peace – the nation’s memorial to the fallen of WW1 – had opened in November 1938, just months before the onset of hostilities. Intended by founder David Davies to mobilise a generation against the ‘scourge of war’ through campaigns of the Welsh League of Nations Union, with the outbreak of war the building became mothballed – yet a place of pilgrimage; a beacon of hope for a better world that might emerge on the other side. Whilst war raged, peacebuilders in Wales and further afield weighed up ideas for an international order that might provide the architecture to Unite Nations. Their post-war creation would be the United Nations.

Those who had lost loved ones in WW1 – including wives, children, ‘mothers of peace’ – flocked to the Temple to visit Wales’ WW1 Book of Remembrance, the rollcall of the fallen held in the Crypt beneath the building. Visitors books, held in the Temple Archives to this day, record train loads of pilgrims from communities Wales-wide participating in services that ended with a ‘pledge for Peace’.

The Temple also hosted special events such as a 1943 Thanksgiving Service for American Services personnel stationed in Wales.

Rediscovering the WW2 Book

Cover of the WW2 Book

Wales’ WW1 Book of Remembrance, and the ‘Peace Heritage’ work of the Temple of Peace with community groups Wales-wide, have been central to WW100 Centenary activities over 2014-19, uncovering the story of the Book, and some of the stories behind the names within. Conversely however, the WW2 Book of Remembrance has become a relatively ‘hidden history’; it has not been been publicly accessible for some years, and no ‘digital footprint’ or public information has been available online to date.

Documents in the Temple of Peace Archives contain tantalising references to the WW2 Book – in particular, architects drawings and reports from c 1990 proposals to redesign the Temple’s ‘Hall of Nations’ to accommodate the WW1 and WW2 Books side by side. Visitors to WCIA’s regular Temple Tours and Open Doors days, participating in the traditional 11am ‘turning of the page’, often asked WCIA’s staff and volunteers about the WW2 Book of Remembrance. However, the WW2 book itself can presently only be viewed by appointment – though there have been suggestions over the years that the Books could be digitised, reunited and / or displayed together.

With the 75th Anniversary of VE Day and other WW2 anniversaries approaching, it seemed fitting to explore the story of the WW2 Book of Remembrance, in the hope that, like the WW1 Book, it will inspire others to uncover the ‘stories behind the names’ – or possibly stimulate interest in making the Book accessible online. In January 2019 – shortly before the COVID lockdown curtailed further work – WCIA Peace Heritage Coordinator Craig Owen visited the National Museum of Wales Collections, to view the WW2 Book of Remembrance and find out more about its story.

Creation of the WW2 Book of Remembrance

Inscription within the WW2 Book

The proposal for a WW2 Book of Remembrance, modelled upon the WW1 Book housed in Wales’ Temple of Peace, emerged in the 1950s. Perhaps surprisingly, it took until 20 years later – 1965 – for the WW2 Book to finally reach completion and accession; not to the Temple of Peace (created to house the WW1 Book), but to the National Museum of Wales.

World War 2 had claimed yet another generation of Welsh men and women, among them Lord David Davies (1880-1944), founder of Wales’ Temple of Peace, who had tragically died of Cancer months before the end of the war. His son and heir Michael was killed in action during the liberation of Eindhoven, Holland; and thus the Temple lost two of its greatest champions. Following the cessation of hostilities, the Welsh League of Nations Union morphed into the United Nations Association and efforts quickly focused upon mobilising Welsh public support for the newly created United Nations, and the challenges of reconstruction – building a new world.

The fallen of WW2 became added to community War Memorials Wales-wide; but the desire to produce a dedicated national memorial and rollcall of Wales’ fallen remained. A Welsh National Book of Remembrance Committee was founded and met between 1957 and 1967 – their correspondence and accounts (1958-1979) are held at Glamorgan Archives. The committee was wound up in 1979, following transfer of the residual accounts in 1977 to a Welsh National Book of Remembrance Fund (for need, hardship or distress of WW2 survivors / descendants), which was wound up in 2005.

The book was inscribed by C Cullen, and bound by W T Morrell. Although it followed a similar style and look to the WW1 Book – and followed a similar regimental order – the information held within it is markedly different – for example, it does not record the towns / villages from which the fallen came.

There seems to have been an ongoing debate over the location for the WW2 Book; the express condition of the committee was that it should be viewable “in a public place.” It would seem that, during the mid-1960s, there was some doubt over the suitability of the Temple of Peace: letters and newspaper articles from the time suggest a perceived decline in the condition of the building, and public access to the spaces. Clearly, the Temple at this point in time fell out of favour with the WW2 committee.

On 12 March 1965, the National Museum of Wales in Cardiff was formally chosen by the Committee as the resting place for the rollcall of the fallen of WW2. NMW formally accepted this ‘national responsibility’ on 14 May 1965.

Unveiling and Public Display of the Book

A public competition to design a display for the WW2 Book of Remembrance was won by Swansea Architect Ceri Jones in 1965. In June 1966 a formal unveiling ceremony was headed by Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, who pronounced:

“I present to you for safekeeping within the National Museum of Wales, the Welsh National Book of Remembrance for the Second World War.”

To which the Marquess of Anglesey , on behalf of the Trustees of the NMW, responded:

“I do willingly and proudly receive it for safekeeping in the National Museum of Wales.”      

An account of the unveiling ceremony is featured in the National Museum of Wales Annual Report for 1967-68.

The WW2 Book – with its memorial display designed by Ceri Jones – was publicly displayed at NMW from 1966 to 1998; after which there were ‘one off’ showings in 2001 and 2004. As museums entered the ‘digital age’ of the new millennium, online articles featured it as the ‘Book of Month’ in 2001,2 and 3.

Bringing the Books Back Together?

Architects Drawings for the Temple of Peace WW2 and WW1 Book Displays in the Hall of Nations.

Have the WW1 and WW2 Books of Remembrance ever been brought together? At present, we do not know.

The Temple Archives hold some fascinating records from discussions in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when it appears discussions on displaying the WW1 and WW2 Books side by side became sufficiently advanced to have commissioned the original Architects of the Temple of Peace – Percy Thomas Partnership – to design a new home for the books:

The designs and reports would have seen both Books moved from their current locations – the Crypt of the Temple, and the Archives of the National Museum – into bespoke marble and bronze display cabinets in the ‘Hall of Nations’, the heart of Wales’ Temple of Peace. It would seem logical that these proposals may have emerged following the 50th Anniversary of the Temple of Peace, which generated considerable public profile and by which point the Welsh Centre for International Affairs had become well established.

These plans did not ultimately go ahead, for reasons lost to time. And so it would seem that, as yet, the ambition to unite Wales’ Books of Remembrance from two World Wars has yet to be realised. Although moves to progress discussions around display and digital access have been thwarted in 2020 by the COVID lockdown, it is hoped that in years to come the WCIA and National Museum of Wales might work together to once again enable Wales’ rollcall of the fallen from WW2 to be accessed for future generations – to Remember for Peace, the fallen of WW2.

1995 Design for WW1 and WW2 display cabinets in the Hall of Nations, Temple of Peace. WCIA Archives.


The 1935 Peace Ballot in Wales

By Rob Laker, History Masters Researcher, Swansea University (student placement with WCIA’s ‘Peace Heritage’ programme).

Download Printable PDF Booklet

The 1935 Peace Ballot was a UK wide poll of Britain’s electorate designed to measure the public’s opinions regarding the key debates in international relations at the time. Despite lacking government sponsorship, the Ballot received extraordinary attention across the United Kingdom – nowhere was engagement higher, however, than in Wales, which quickly came to be recognised as a leading light in the cause of internationalism.

1,025,040 people in Wales voted in the Peace Ballot of 1935… 62.3% of eligible registered voters”

Between the wars, a new form of outward-looking patriotism had become an important part of Welsh national identity, as ordinary people worked actively to create a Wales which existed at the centre of the international community. Local branches of the Welsh League of Nations Union were active in every corner of Wales, running cultural events such as ‘Daffodil Days’ – the since forgotten annual custom of selling daffodils in aid of the League – and coordinating networks of local activists. This pride in their nation’s role in the quest for international harmony manifested itself in Welsh responses to the Peace Ballot, producing an overwhelming endorsement for the cause of internationalism.

The UK Ballot

By the end of 1933 it seemed that the international order was unravelling: the World Disarmament Conference had failed to produce results, Germany had withdrawn from the League of Nations, and the organisation had proved itself unable to resolve the Manchuria Crisis.

Internationalists in Britain, however, were anxious that the government remain committed to the League, and so the League of Nations Union set about organising the Peace Ballot in order to demonstrate the British people’s unwavering commitment to internationalism. Between the end of 1934 and the middle of 1935, half a million volunteers canvassed door to door, collecting ‘yes’ or ‘no’ responses on five key questions:

1)    Should Great Britain remain a member of the League of Nations?

2)    Are you in favour of all-round reduction of armaments by international agreement?

3)    Are you in favour of an all-round abolition of national military and naval aircraft by international agreement?

4)    Should the manufacture and sale of armaments for private profit be prohibited by international agreement?

5)     Do you consider that, if a nation insists on attacking another, the other nations should combine to compel it to stop –

       a) by economic and non-military measures?

       b) if necessary, military measures?

Credit – Northern Friends’ Peace Board, c/o Campaign Against the Arms Trade (CAAT) 

Despite being independently conducted, the Ballot – which received 11.6 million responses nationwide – has been described as Britain’s first referendum, and was highly effective in stimulating engagement with the key issues dominating international politics. The poll did not disappoint its organisers, for the result was an emphatic endorsement of internationalist policies from the British public.

  • An astonishing ninety-seven percent of voters felt that Britain should remain in the League
  • while ninety-four percent believed that it should outlaw the arms trade
Read more

WLNU Postbox in the Temple of Peace today.

The Welsh Case

In Wales, the organisation of the Ballot fell solely on the shoulders of the Welsh League of Nations Union (WLNU), a challenge which it took up with great enthusiasm. Vast reserves of internationalist sentiment, which permeated every corner of Welsh society, were an important part of interwar society. To believe in Wales was, in this period of salient hope, to actively pursue the cause of peace, thereby locating the Welsh as a ‘force for good’ at the crux of global anxieties.

Google Map of Communities who organised Daffodil Days between 1925-39, collated by Rob Laker for his feature article on Daffodil Days of the WLNU . Zoom, or click on pins, to find individual communities. Further info on local activism can be gleaned from Welsh League of Nations Union reports (digitised by WCIA on People’s Collection Wales).

Lord David Davies of Llandinam  (painted by Sam Morse Brown:  National Museum of Wales collections)  

As a result, Lord David Davies (who co-founded the Welsh League of Nations Union with Rev Gwilym Davies) was determined that Wales should produce a spectacular result in the Ballot which he viewed as the very ‘essence of democracy’.

Drawing upon a committed network of volunteers across Wales, supplemented by an army of canvassers (paid at the personal expense of Lord Davies), WLNU representatives went door to door in nearly every Welsh town and village collecting responses.

The responses proved to be an affirmation of Wales’ internationalist credentials, as over one million adults voted in the Ballot – which at the time, represented 62.3 percent of the Welsh electorate (24 percent higher than the average across Britain as a whole).

As of 6th June 1935, the top twelve constituencies in Great Britain with the highest percentage turnout were all in Wales, in some of which over eighty percent of the total electorate responded to the ballot (RH).

In a few cases, turnout was particularly spectacular. In Llanerfyl (Montgomeryshire), for instance, all 304 of its adult inhabitants responded to the poll, likely a testament to the zeal of local activists.

Turnout was in fact much higher in villages than in large towns across the board, and despite hosting the headquarters of the Welsh League of Nations Union, Cardiff produced some of the lowest turnouts of the poll.

We can interpret this as evidence that the success of the Ballot in Wales rested not just in the League’s popularity, but in the strength of Welsh community activism. It is highly likely that organisers in villages such as Llanerfyl (Montgomery) and Nantlle (Gwynedd) were able to achieve a 100 percent response rate because they operated in a tight-knit community, allowing them to rally support face-to-face, one neighbour at a time, in a way which proved more difficult in larger cities.

It is worth noting, however, that despite the strategy of going door-to-door in their local communities, activists were still able to obtain phenomenal results from many larger towns. In Port Talbot, for example, 82.8 percent of the town’s 27,000 adults voted.

Viewed in this light, the results of the Ballot are a testament to the strength and scale of the local networks upon which the Welsh League of Nations relied upon for support.

The way in which Welsh people voted also reflects the strength of their commitment to internationalism. In fact, just 1.7 percent of voters in Wales wanted to leave the League – around half the national average – while Welsh voters were consistently more often in favour of disarmament.

Wales had proved itself a ‘special case’. As historians such as Helen McCarthy have noted, the League of Nations Union was the largest ‘League themed’ society of any in Europe and easily enjoyed the most popular support. It is not unreasonable then, in light of the disparity between Wales and the rest of Britain in Ballot responses, to conclude that…

“in 1935 the Welsh ‘were the most ardently internationalist nation in Europe’.”

Digitised Wales Peace Ballot Records

This collection draws together leaflets, voting forms, campaigner bulletins, articles and analysis by the Welsh League of Nations Union for the 1935 Peace Ballot - a national canvass of public opinion on Peace in the context of the then-escalating European Arms Race. Although the Peace Ballot was an initiative by the UK League of Nations Union, Wales set out explicitly to 'lead the way' and 'top the polls,' to demonstrate the strength of feeling in favour of peace, 16 years after the end of WW1.

The bulletins gave a detailed breakdown of progress on the Ballot, returns from each county of Wales (with comparisons to England), and analysis / encouragement from key figures in Wales' Peace movements. The bulletins carried motivational 'Opinion Pieces' from leaders of Wales Peace movements, such as Gwilym Davies and David Davies; and in depth analysis of the returns received from constituencies all over Wales

Later bulletins and introduction of 'YMLAEN / ONWARD' newsletter, explore implications of the results for Wales' peace building movements, and impact upon domestic and international political affairs - in particular, the meeting of the 1936 League of Nations in Geneva, which was regarded as a failure on the part of national governments. A poster graphic illustrates the UK-wide results, and Wales' leading place within the polls - with 5 of the top 10 constituency returns being Anglesey, Aberdare, Swansea East, Rhondda West and Merthyr Tydfil.
1935 Peace Ballot – Briefing for Households 1935 Peace Ballot – Canvassers’ Briefing ‘Peace Calls for Plain Answers to Simple Questions’ – 1935 Media Article Bulletin 2, Jan 22 1935 Bulletin 3, Feb 6 1935
Bulletin 4, Mar 9 1935 Bulletin 5, Apr 9 1935 Bulletin 6, June 7 1935 Bulletin 7, Oct 1935: ONWARD YMLAEN / ONWARD Bulletin, May 1936

Outcomes for Britain

The will of the people was unequivocal – Wales and Britain wanted to remain in international circles – what this meant, however, remained open to interpretation.

The organisers of the Ballot presented the result to the prime minister and his cabinet, but it quickly became clear that, due to the binary nature of responses, that the format of the Ballot was a poor vehicle for dictating policy.

‘Remain may have meant remain’, and ‘disarm may have meant disarm’… but the Ballot gave no sense of the scale or manner of which these aims should be pursued.

This left little room for nuance, and instead general opinion was measured without details of its practical implementation. The failure of Ballot organisers to frame the poll’s questions within the myriad complexities of Britain’s international position, made integration of the Ballot’s result into policy making both confusing and impractical – and so the consequences of the Ballot in Britain’s foreign policy are hard to identify.

The Ballot may have failed to significantly influence policy, but the strength of the poll lay in its ability to measure popular opinion. It demonstrated that an overwhelming majority of the population supported Britain’s active involvement in the League of Nations, even if there was no uniform vision of what that involvement should look like.

Across Britain, League of Nations Union branches enjoyed a surge in membership and enthusiasm for the League which, despite the Abyssinia Crisis and the aggression of Hitler, was maintained right up until the outbreak of the Second World War.

UK wide returns against the 5 questions posed by the Peace Ballot.


Outcomes for Wales

WLNU Organiser Rev Gwilym Davies

The Welsh League of Nations Union had a very clear idea of what the result should mean for Wales. For Gwilym Davies (Organiser of the WLNU) the result of the Ballot was ‘the vindication of the democratic right of a free people’ and a demonstration of the ‘notable achievements’ of Wales in the cause for world peace.

In a bulletin on the subject of ‘facing the future’, Davies called for the ‘Welsh million’ to be converted into one hundred thousand new members across Wales. While this roughly eight-fold increase failed to materialise itself,

the WLoNU organisation more than doubled in size, reaching 27,545 paid members by 1937 – the highest at any point in the interwar period.

For Wales, Gwilym Davies published a Constituency by Constituency Analysis of the 1935 Peace Ballot voting returns – which can be viewed on People’s Collection Wales at:

Clearly then, far from being a fleeting spike of interest, the Peace Ballot was the source of revitalisation of Wales’ identity as an international nation.

Furthermore, the setbacks suffered by the League of Nations in the mid and late 1930s – instead of leading to disenchantment – only made people in Wales more determined that the principles they had committed to in the Peace Ballot should be upheld. This wave of enthusiasm for peace through internationalism was carried right through to the outbreak of war in 1939 and beyond, later providing the support structures and the much of the personnel for the creation of the United Nations.

One such example is Gwilym Davies himself, Director and co-founder of the WLNU, who not only became president of the Welsh National Council of the United Nations Association, but is considered to be a key architect in the creation of world education & scientific body UNESCO.

Temple of Peace: Headquarters befitting a ‘Booming’ Movement

One of the most striking and longstanding results of the Peace Ballot in Wales is the Temple of Peace and Health, which was opened in Cardiff in 1938.

Envisioned by Lord Davies as ‘a memorial to those gallant men from all nations who gave their lives in the war that was to end war’, construction of the building was started in 1937 at a time when the organisation was rapidly expanding.

'A New Mecca'

Account from the Opening Ceremony, ‘A New Mecca’, from the Temple of Peace Archives

It was felt that, in light of the precarious international situation, it was more important than ever for Welsh internationalism to have a headquarters which suitably reflected its growing influence. Thus rose the Temple – a bastion of peace, intended to make good the sacrifice of those who fell in the ‘war that was to end war’.

Today the Temple of Peace still stands – an enduring legacy of the Ballot’s success. The organisations it now houses continue to work in the spirit of the Ballot’s organisers, inheriting the desire that Wales should be at the centre of the international community.

The WCIA – Welsh Centre for International Affairs, founded in 1973, is the modern iteration (the ‘grand daughter’, via UNA Wales) of the Welsh League of Nations Union. WCIA continue the work and vision of WLNU, and the million Welsh people who voted in the 1935 Peace Ballot, to build a better, more peaceful world.

WCIA, like their predecessors, believe that Wales is a nation which can create real and lasting change in the wider world. It is for this proud tradition – driven by the dedication and commitment of local people across Wales – that the galvanising effects of the Peace Ballot should be remembered today.

Blog article and research by WCIA Research Intern Rob Laker, on placement with Wales for Peace from Swansea University History Dept over Summer 2019 with ongoing research through 2020. Drawing on materials from the National Library of Wales and Temple of Peace Archives; and Annual Reports of the Welsh League of Nations Union 1922-45 on People’s Collection Wales, digitised by WCIA (with support of Swansea doctoral student Stuart Booker) for open access research. Final edit by Craig Owen, Wales for Peace.

Rob Laker, WCIA Archives Intern


Stori Llyfr y Cofio Cymru o’r Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf

Lawrlwythwch PDF i'w Brintio

Adeiladwyd Teml Heddwch ac Iechyd Cymru, sef cartref Canolfan Materion Rhyngwladol Cymru a’r prosiect ‘ Cymru dros Heddwch ‘ a ariannir gan CDL fel cofeb y genedl i’r rheiny a fu farw yn y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf– cofeb a fyddai’n ysbrydoli cenedlaethau’r dyfodol i ddysgu o wrthdaro’r gorffennol, i siartio rôl Cymru yn y byd, ac i weithio tuag at heddwch.

100 mlynedd yn ôl i’r penwythnos hwn, dywedodd y byd ‘ Byth Eto ‘ i wrthdaro, wrth i Glychau’r Cadoediad ganu ar 4 blynedd a oedd wedi dileu cenhedlaeth. Cenedl mewn poen a galar sy’n ymbaratoi i ailadeiladu, ac adeiladu byd gwell.

CaernarfonPoppies4-1200x900 Red White WfP Poppies

100 mlynedd yn ddiweddarach, mae pabïau coch y cofio milwrol –yn ogystal â’r pabïau gwyn dros heddwch, y pabïau du dros gymunedau BME, a’r pabiau porffor dros anifeiliaid a gollwyd mewn rhyfel –i gyd yn nodi’r funud o dawelwch am 11am ar 11.11, pabïau i bobl o bob persbectif.

Ond ar #WW100, mae ein pabïau o bob lliw yn cofio’r rheiny sydd wedi marw a chael eu gadael ar ôl hefyd gan ganrif o wrthdaro ers hynny – yr Ail Ryfel Byd, Sbaen, Korea, y Rhyfeloedd Trefedigaethol, y Rhyfel Oer, Fietnam, Falklands, Gwlff, Balcanau, Rhyfel ar Derfysgaeth, Affganistan, Irac, Libya, Syria … Beth mae’r byd wedi’i ddysgu mewn gwirionedd o Gofio? I ogoneddu rhyfel … neu i’w atal?

Davies Family of Llandinam

Y Teulu Davies o Landinam

Nid yw agweddau gwahanol tuag at wynebu gwrthdaro yn newydd. Drwy’r Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, byddai’r teulu Davies o Landinam ym Mhowys wedi cael dadleuon wrth y bwrdd cinio a oedd yn cynrychioli’r trawsdoriad o gymdeithas. Wyrion y diwydiannwr o Gymro, David Davies:

  • Roedd David Davies (Jnr) (yr Arglwydd Davies o Landinam yn ddiweddarach) yn filwr yn y Ffiwsilwyr Brenhinol Cymreig, ac yn Ysgrifennydd Seneddol preifat i’r arweinydd rhyfel, David Lloyd George. Ond cafodd ei arswydo gan y gyflafan a welodd ar y Ffrynt, ac fe neilltuodd ei fywyd i fynd ar drywydd heddwch –gan gynnwys sefydlu’r Adran Cysylltiadau Rhyngwladol gyntaf yn y byd yn Aberystwyth (dathlu eu canmlwyddiant yn 2019), a Theml Heddwch ac Iechyd Cymru (dathlu #Teml80, ein 80fed pen-blwydd, yn Tach 2018).
  • Ymunodd ei gefnder Edward Lloyd Jones yn gyndyn â rhyfel a ystyriai’n anghyfiawn; ond cafodd ei ladd yn Gallipoli, yn ddim ond 27 mlwydd oed.
  • Roedd y cefnder George M Ll Davies yn Wrthwynebydd Cydwybodol, a gafodd ei garcharu yn Wormwood Scrubs am wrthod meddu arfau– ond ar ôl y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, fe’i etholwyd yn Aelod Seneddol dros Brifysgol Cymru, a daeth yn un o adeiladwyr heddwch enwocaf Cymru – oedd yn cael ei adnabod fel ‘Pererin Heddwch’.
  • O gael eu brawychu gan y rhyfel, ymunodd Gwendoline a Margaret (Daisy) Davies, â’r Iwmoniaeth Nyrsio Cymorth Cyntaf i redeg ffreutur yn Troyes, Ffrainc, lle cefnogon nhw filwyr oedd yn mynd i Flaen y Gad ac oddi yno. Ar ôl cael eu distrywio gan farwolaeth eu cefnder, cefnogasant George fel Gwrthwynebydd Cydwybodol. Ar ôl y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, fe wnaethon nhw sefydlu Gwasg Gregynog, cefnogi’r gwaith o greu Llyfr y Cofio, a helpu i sefydlu WEAC (Pwyllgor Cynghori Cymru ar Addysg) a gynhyrchodd y Cwricwlwm Addysg Heddwch cyntaf yn y byd, a ddaeth yn lasbrint i UNESCO.

Book of Remembrance Cover

Creu Llyfr y Cofio

Ar ddechrau’r 1920au, wrth i deuluoedd ymgeledd gyda sgîl-effeithiau’r Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf a’u colled, codwyd cofebau ar draws Cymru. Cynigiwyd adeiladu Cofeb Ryfel Genedlaethol Cymru ar gyfer gerddi Alexandra ym Mharc Cathays.  Roedd y 35-40,000 o’r Cymry a fu farw i’w hysgythru mewn Llyfr hardd – Llyfr y Cofio’r Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf yng Nghymru –a fyddai’n dod yn waith celf, yn drysor cenedlaethol, ac yn fan pererin.

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Mae’r llyfr yn waith y caligraffwr byd-enwog Graily Hewitt, sy’n gweithio’n agos yn ol pob son gyda’r chwiorydd Davies a’u hartistiaid Gwasg Gregynog. Gwnaed ymdrech genedlaethol fawr i gasglu enwau’r rheiny a fu farw; ac fe weithiodd tîm o ferched ym Midhurst, Sussex dros sawl blwyddyn i gwblhau’r llyfr.

Cafodd y chwiorydd Davies a Gwasg Gregynog genhadaeth i greu llyfrau o gelfyddyd uchel a phrydferthwch. Cawsant eu rhwymo mewn Lledr o Foroco, gydag Inc Indiaidd a Deilen Aur ar dudalennau o Femrwn. Roedd y technegau addurno cain yn adfywiad o sgiliau Canoloesol.

Edrychwch ar yr Albwm Flickr o Lyfr y Cofio yn y Deml Heddwch

Screenshot 2018-11-10 at 18.11.30 1917 Caernarfon RfP Book of Remembrance Hedd Wyn - Ellis Evans closeup 1

“this Book of Souls, reposed upon a stone of French Marble, encased in Belgian Bronze, illuminated individually, painstakingly by hand in Indian Ink and the finest Gold Leaf upon handcrafted Vellum… bound in a volume of Moroccan Leather, entombed in a sanctuary of Portland Stone and Greek collonades. It seemed as if the whole Empire were as one in the creation of this memorial to those whose loss must live forever.” 

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Cwblhawyd y 1,205 tudalen o 35,000 o enwau ym mis Mawrth 1928; a llofnodwyd y Llyfr, ar 12 Mehefin 1928, gan Edward Tywysog Cymru – y Brenin Edward VIII yn y dyfodol – ar dudalen farchnata gydag ‘ Er Cof ‘ – In Memory’ arni.  Cafodd ei ddadorchuddio’n ffurfiol i’r cyhoedd ar 11.11, 1928 – sef 10fed pen-blwydd y Cadoediad – wrth agor Cofeb Ryfel Genedlaethol Cymru yng Ngerddi Alexandra, Caerdydd. Am y ddegawd gyntaf, cadwyd y llyfr yn Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Cymru. Ond roedd ei greu wedi ysbrydoli cenhadaeth ehangach.

Roedd mudiadau adeiladu heddwch Cymru wedi bod yn arbennig o weithgar drwy’r 1920au ar y llwyfan rhyngwladol. Roedd gan yr Arglwydd David Davies weledigaeth y dylai Cymru arwain y byd wrth wireddu heddwch, wedi’i wreiddio mewn brics a morter drwy adeiladu’r ‘Deml Heddwch’ gyntaf, gyda’r gobaith o arwain at gyfres o ‘Demlau Heddwch’ ar draws y byd.

1930 Temple proposed cross-sections

Allan o Ryfel – Teml Heddwch

Gwahoddwyd penseiri blaenllaw i ddylunio adeilad a fyddai’n cadw Llyfr y Cofio, ac yn ysbrydoli cenedlaethau’r dyfodol-ac ym 1929, comisiynwyd y pensaer o Gaerdydd, Percy Thomas, i ddylunio Teml Heddwch Cymru, ar dir a roddwyd gan Gorfforaeth Caerdydd. Ar ôl dechrau araf yn ystod y Dirwasgiad Mawr, ym 1934, rhoddodd yr Arglwydd Davies £60,000 o’i arian ei hun i gychwyn y prosiect.

1937 Foundation stone ceremony 1938 Temple from Cathays Park.jpg

Ym mis Ebrill 1937, gosodwyd y garreg sylfaen mewn seremoni fawr ym Mharc Cathays, Caerdydd, gan yr Arglwydd Halifax – un o brif ‘ wleidyddion heddwch ‘ y cyfnod.  Ond roedd diwedd y 1930au yn gyfnod cythryblus; roedd y ‘gwaith adfer heddwch ar ôl y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf a lesteiriodd yr Almaen, wedi arwian at Hitler yn dod i bŵer– a byddai’r Arglwydd Halifax, a oedd wedi gweithio’n galed i osgoi rhyfel ar bob cost, yn mynd lawr mewn hanes fel ‘dyhuddwr’ (er mai barn annheg a syml yw hon efallai, ar ei ymdrechion i adeiladu heddwch).  Ond hyd yn oed wrth i’r Deml gael ei hadeiladu, roedd bagiau tywod a llochesi bomiau yn cael eu hadeiladu ar nail ochr y strydoedd.

“A New Mecca – the Opening of Wales’ Temple of Peace and Health” – Blog gan Dr. Emma West ar gyfer yr Ŵyl ‘Being Human’.

Screenshot 2018-11-10 at 18.54.14 1938 Crowds for Opening of Temple of Peace

Ym mis Tach 1938, agorwyd y Deml Heddwch gan ‘ Mam Cymru ‘ Minnie James o Ddowlais, Merthyr Tudful, oedd wedi colli 3 mab yn y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf – yn cynrychioli mamau Cymru oedd wedi profi profedigaeth.  Cafodd gwmni cynrychiolwyr mamau o bob rhan o Brydain a’r Ymerodraeth, a ddynodwyd drwy’r Lleng Brydeinig ac ymgyrchoedd yn y Wasg leol. Roedd y Deml yn ceisio hyrwyddo cydraddoldeb o’r cychwyn cyntaf – er bod y seremoni agoriadol yn nodweddiadol iawn ‘o’i chyfnod’, gan nad oedd y menywod yn gallu ysgrifennu eu hareithiau eu hunain.

Roedd tywydd garw’r diwrnod agoriadol, ac ymbarelau’r torfeydd enfawr a ymgynullodd i wylio, yn atgof ingol bod cymylau stormydd yn dod i’r golwg dros Ewrop.  Misoedd yn ddiweddarach, dechreuodd yr Ail Ryfel Byd.

Edrychwch ar Fideo o Ddarnau o’r Wasg, o ddigwyddiad agor y Deml Heddwch ym 1938. 

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Mae “We will Remember Them” gan newyddiadurwr y BBC, Huw Edwards, Tach 2018, yn cynnwys 3 munud ar y Deml Heddwch ac ar Lyfr y Cofio (o 38.30)

Man Pererindod

Er gwaethaf cychwyn y rhyfel, daeth y Deml Heddwch yn fan pererindod i bobl o bob cwr o Gymru. Mewn oes pan oedd teithio i Ffrainc, Gwlad Belg neu hyd yn oed ymhellach i ffwrdd y tu hwnt i gyrraedd y rhan fwyaf o bobl sy’n gweithio, byddai grwpiau cymunedol ac ysgolion ledled Cymru yn trefnu ‘pererindodau’ i ymweld â Llyfr y Cofio. Roedd yr ymweliadau hyn yn aml yn cael eu hyrwyddo’n helaeth mewn papurau newydd lleol.

Screenshot 2018-11-10 at 19.50.03.png Y Gell yn 1938

Am 11am bob bore, fe fyddai tudalen o’r llyfr yn cael ei throi – gyda’r enwau yn cael eu cyhoeddi yn y wasg yn ystod yr wythnos flaenorol, fel y gallai perthnasau ddod i weld y seremoni wrth i’w hanwyliaid gael y sylw wedi’i roi arnynt. Byddai ymwelwyr yn cymryd rhan mewn Gwasanaeth Cofio hyfryd, dwys ond blaengar, oedd wedi’i drefnu gan y Chwiorydd Davies o Gregynog– ac yn arwyddo llyfr ymwelwyr yn addo mynd ar drywydd heddwch.

Ar ôl yr Ail Ryfel Byd, roedd cenhedlaeth arall o ddynion a menywod o Gymru wedi marw; a chomisiynwyd Llyfr y Cofio’r Ail Ryfel Byd, a mynediad i archifau Amgueddfa Genedlaethol Cymru. Mor ddiweddar â 1993, lluniwyd cynlluniau pensaernïol i addasu neuadd y Deml Heddwch i arddangos y ddau lyfr ochr yn ochr. Ond hyd yn hyn, nid ydynt erioed wedi cael eu huno, ac mae hyn yn parhau i fod yn ddyhead gan Ganolfan Materion Rhyngwladol Cymru (WCIA) hyd heddiw.

Wrth i oroeswyr cenhedlaeth y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf dyfu’n hŷn – ac wrth i deithio dramor ddod yn haws – tyfodd ymwelwyr i Lyfr y Cofio yn llai dros y blynyddoedd. Mae’r llyfr, a’r Deml, wedi cael ymweliad gan y fath enwogion â Peres De Cuellar, Ysgrifennydd Cyffredinol y Cenhedloedd Unedig, ym 1984; a Desmond Tutu yn 2012. Ond erbyn 2014, roedd yn ymddangos bod Llyfr y Cofio wedi’i  … anghofio i raddau helaeth?

Wales for Peace Exhibition Title Panel A1 Landscape

Cofio dros Heddwch – 2014-18

Yn 2014, datblygodd WCIA, ynghyd â 10 partner cenedlaethol, brosiect ‘ Cymru dros Heddwch ‘, wedi’i ariannu gan CDL a’i gefnogi gan Cymru’n Cofio/Wales Remembers, gyda’r nod o nodi canmlwyddiant y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf drwy archwilio un cwestiwn mawr:

“Yn y 100 mlynedd ers y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, sut mae Cymru wedi cyfrannu at geisio heddwch?”

Fel gwarcheidwaid y Deml Heddwch, dechreuodd prosiect WCIA gyda gwneud Llyfr y Cofio yn hygyrch unwaith eto i’r cyhoedd. Y nod oedd creu arddangosfa deithiol – ac uno’r Llyfr am y tro cyntaf gyda’r cymunedau ar draws Cymru y deilliodd ei 35,000 o enwau ohonynt; ac i ddigideiddio’r llyfr, fel y gallai fod yn hygyrch ar-lein i genedlaethau’r dyfodol.

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Lansiwyd trawsgrifiad o’r Llyfr ar Ddydd y Cofio 2015,  gyda digwyddiad yn y Senedd, Bae Caerdydd, lle gwahoddwyd Aelodau’r Cynulliad i weld y llyfr a thrawsgrifio’r enwau cyntaf.  Lansiwyd galwad cenedlaethol am wirfoddolwyr, ysgolion a grwpiau cymuned i gymryd rhan mewn ‘Gweithred Ddigidol o Gofio’.

Galluogodd gweithdai lleol, o Eryri i Abertawe, bobl i fod yn rhan o ‘greu hanes ‘. Datblygodd ysgolion brosiectau ‘ hanesion cudd ‘ a oedd yn darganfod y straeon y tu ôl i’r enwau, a brofodd yn hynod o deimladwy i lawer, wrth iddynt gysylltu â phobl oedd wedi mynd i angof ers amser maith.

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Taith o’r Arddangosfa

Lansiwyd yr Arddangosfa Cofio dros Heddwch yn Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru yn Aberystwyth ym mis Ionawr 2016. Mae wedi teithio ymlaen i’r lleoliadau canlynol:

  • Castell Bodelwyddan, Sir Ddinbych yn cynnwys digwyddiad gyda Cofebion Rhyfel Sir y Fflint
  • Y Deml Heddwch, Caerdydd ar gyfer #Somme100
  • Castell Caernarfon, Gwynedd – ochr yn ochr â Pabis: Weeping Window, a Llwybr Heddwch Caernarfon
  • Amgueddfa Arberth, Sir Benfro
  • Oriel Môn, Ynys Môn
  • Senedd, Bae Caerdydd – ochr yn ochr â Pabis; Weeping Window a Menywod, Rhyfel a Heddwch
  • Amgueddfa Abertawe, fel rhan o’r digwyddiad ‘Nawr yr Arwr’
  • Eglwys Gadeiriol Llandaf, Gwasanaeth Coffa Cenedlaethol ‘Cymru’ ar gyfer Canmlwyddiant WW100
  • Teml Heddwch, Caerdydd ar gyfer #Temple80

Ym mhob lleoliad arddangos, mae partneriaid lleol wedi gweithio gyda grwpiau cymunedol i dynnu sylw at straeon lleol amrywiol, felly mae pob arddangosfa wedi bod yn wahanol. Mae Pecyn Cwricwlwm i Ysgolion, ‘ Cofio dros Heddwch ‘ ar gael ar Hwb, ac mae Canllaw Hanesion Cudd ar gyfer Grwpiau Gwirfoddolwyr wedi cael ei ddefnyddio’n helaeth y tu hwnt i brosiect Cymru dros Heddwch.

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Llyfr y Cofio Ar-lein

Ar gyfer Dydd y Cofio 2017, roedd yn bleser gan WCIA a Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru ddadorchuddio Llyfr y Cofio digidol, a’r swyddogaeth chwilio ar-lein ar wefan www.BookofRemembrance.Wales /

Mae hyn nid yn unig yn weithred symbolaidd iawn o goffadwriaeth ynddo’i hun, ond yn glod mawr i dros 350 o wirfoddolwyr a gyfrannodd tuag at drawsgrifio’r Llyfr i’w wneud yn hygyrch i genedlaethau’r dyfodol. Cydnabuwyd eu cyfraniad eithriadol pan gyflwynwyd Wobr Gwirfoddoli’r Archifau mawreddog i’r Llyfrgell Genedlaethol ar gyfer 2016.

Darganfyddiad rhyfedd o’r broses ddigideiddio fu’r cwestiwn ‘ faint o bobl fu farw ‘? Mae’r rhan fwyaf o gyfeiriadau hanes – yn cynnwys am greu Llyfr y Cofio – yn dyfynnu 35,000 fel y nifer o ddynion a menywod o Gymru a fu farw yn y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf. Ond roedd ychydig o dan 40,000 o enwau (39,917) yn deillio o’r data trawsgrifio – sy’n awgrymu y gallai colledion Cymru fod wedi bod hyd yn oed yn fwy na’r hyn a ystyriwyd yn flaenorol.

Straeon Milwyr

Grym diamheuol Llyfr y Cofio yw y tu ôl i bob enw wedi’i addurno a’i euro, mae stori bywyd – o’r enwog, i’r gwreiddiol, i’r cymharol anhysbys.

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Hedd Wyn (Ellis Humphrey Evans), Bardd ac eicon heddwch Cymraeg, a fu farw yn Passchendaele, dim ond dyddiau cyn ennill coron yr Eisteddfod Genedlaethol. Mae ei wobr, a adwaenir am byth fel y ‘ Gadair Ddu ‘ a’i fferm enedigol, yr Ysgwrn, bellach yn fan pererindod yn Eryri ar gyfer pobl sy’n dysgu am y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, diwylliant Cymru ac adeiladu heddwch.  Mae ei nai, Gerald Williams, wedi cadw’r drysau ar agor a chof Hedd Wyn yn fyw, a phlannodd y pabi olaf yng Nghastell Caernarfon ar gyfer agoriad gwaith celf 14-18NOW Weeping Window ym mis Hydref 2016.

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Roedd Alfred Thomas o Dyddewi yn gwasanaethu yn y Llynges Fasnachol pan gafodd ei long, yr S S Memnon, ei tharo gan dorpido. 100 mlynedd yn ddiweddarach, roedd ei wyres, Gwenno Watkin, yn un o’r gwirfoddolwyr Llyfrgell Genedlaethol a oedd yn trawsgrifio Llyfr y Cofio pan ddaeth hi’n sydyn wyneb yn wyneb â’i enw – a mynd ymlaen i ddarganfod mwy am ei golled yn y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf.

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Roedd Jean Roberts, Eva Davies, Margaret Evans a Jennie Williams i gyd yn nyrsys gyda Queen Mary’s Auxiliary Corps, a fu farw yn gwasanaethu yn ysbytai caeau Ffrainc a Gwlad Belg. Yn draddodiadol, mae stori menywod, rhyfel a heddwch ymhlith rhengoedd milwyr gwrywaidd wedi cael ei hanwybyddu– ond ysbrydolodd eu straeon greadigaeth yr arddangosfa Menywod, Rhyfel a Heddwch, a phrosiect ‘ Menywod yng Nghymru yn ystod y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf’, Archif Menywod Cymru.

Beddau Beersheba. Mae Eli Lichtenstein yn wirfoddolwr yng Ngogledd Cymru a fagwyd yn Israel. Fe’i syfrdanwyd i sylweddoli ei fod yn cydnabod llawer o enwau yn Llyfr y Cofio o dyfu i fyny yn blentyn, a darganfuodd bod llawer o’r dynion a fu farw ym Mrwydr Beersheba, yn yr hen Balesteina Brydeinig, yn Ffiwsilwyr Cymreig Brenhinol o ardal Bangor, Llandudno. Darllenwch Stori Blog Eli.

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Gwasanaethodd David Louis Clemetson gyda Iomaniaeth Penfro, ac mae’n un o’r nifer o Bobl Dduon ac Asiaidd a Lleiafrifoedd Ethnig (BAME) Cymru, yn ogystal â’r rheiny ar draws ymerodraeth Prydain gynt, a gollodd eu bywydau yn y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf.  Yn 2018, ar gyfer WW100, trefnodd y Deml Heddwch Wasanaeth Cofio BME, lle y cydnabuodd Llywodraeth Cymru am y tro cyntaf, aberthau a cholledion cymunedau BME Cymru mewn rhyfeloedd Prydeinig olynol.

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Mae gan bawb stori bersonol; a chafodd Pennaeth Cymru dros Heddwch,  Craig Owen,  ei daro o ddarganfod stori ei hen daid ei hun, Ally Price, ac yn dilyn ymweliad â’i gofeb yn Tyne Cot, Gwlad Belg, creodd ffilm fer ar gyfer ei deulu, wrth iddo ddarganfod mwy am y ‘dyn tu ôl i’r enw ‘ o Faesyfed, Tredegar a swydd Henffordd.

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Gwasanaethodd David James o Ferthyr Tudful, a fu’n gweithio yn y swyddfa arlunio ym Mhwll Glo Dowlais, gyda’r Gwarchodlu Cymreig nes iddo gael ei ladd ar waith ym mis Hydref 1916. Bu farw ei ddau frawd hefyd o anafiadau yn ystod y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, a dwy chwaer o golera. Dewiswyd eu mam, Minnie James, i agor Teml Heddwch ac Iechyd Cymru yng Nghaerdydd ym 1938 er cof amdanynt.

Fideo – Minnie James yn agor y Deml Heddwch ym 1938.

Ar gyfer penwythnos Cadoediad WW100, mae’r Deml Heddwch yn cofio pawb a fu farw yn ‘y rhyfel a fyddai’n rhoi terfyn ar ryfel ‘ – a’r holl rai hynny a oroesodd, ac a roddodd bopeth i adeiladu heddwch yn y blynyddoedd a ddilynodd.  Mae eu cenhadaeth yn parhau i fod mor berthnasol heddiw ag erioed.

Gwrandewch ar fwy:

  • Audio on Soundcloud – ‘Thoughts in the Crypt’ gan E. R. Eaton – recordiad air am air o atodiad y Western Mail ar 23 Tach 1938, a ddarllenwyd gan Craig Owen.
  • ‘Peace Podcast’ ar Soundcloud – Recordiad o ddarlith Teml80 WCIA ‘The Story of the Book of Remembrance’ o 9 Tachwedd 2018, gyda Craig Owen, Cymru dros Heddwch; Dafydd Tudur, Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru; a Jon Berry, Artist Preswyl y Deml Heddwch.

Archwiliwch Lyfr y Cofio drosoch eich hun:

Book of Remembrance Flyer Cover.png  Book of Remembrance Online


Global Perspectives on COVID Pandemic: Solidarity, Community and Cooperation

Published on 25th March, in a fast changing international situation.

As the COVID Pandemic of 2020 has reached ‘lockdown’ for the UK and many other nations, the need for our communities – and community of nations – to work together has never been greater. Wales and the World are inextricably linked through global health: pandemics know no borders – and information is international. In an age of social media we are intertwined, and interdependent; we are Humankind.
Kindness, compassion and clarity will help us to face this world crisis, and support the most vulnerable, through cooperation and humanity – from the local to the global. Over coming weeks, WCIA will be sharing (via WCIA’s website, Twitter and Facebook feeds) ‘stories of solidarity’, links to reliable information / updates, and examples of inspiring civil society, individuals and community leadership from around the world.

View WCIA’s ‘Global Perspectives’ Blogs


Wales amidst a Global Health Crisis

Wales and Welsh communities must do all we can within a crisis of global proportions – and requiring global solutions. Summarised below are quick links to key sources of information and updates from around the world; ways that people can take action in local to global solidarity; learning from our heritage; and stories of solidarity from individuals around the world.

Quick References and Information Sources

UK & Welsh Government, NHS and Voluntary Sector

Global Health Bodies & Cooperation

Reference Resources and Useful Articles

temple of peaceWCIA and the Temple of Peace & Health

As with all venues and workplaces, the Temple of Peace is closed throughout the shutdown period and WCIA staff have been working from home since Monday 16th March (though as with many in this challenging time, our capacity is limited).

  • Venue bookings, and all WCIA events, have been postponed until the COVID situation becomes safer.
  • WCIA are sharing Stories of Solidarity (see below) from around the world; and useful resources (such as home learning and means to take action) via WCIA’s Twitter and Facebook social media feeds.
  • WCIA are supporting international volunteers on placements through UNA Exchange to self-isolate if in UK, and to find passages to their home countries where possible / appropriate.
  • Hub Cymru Africa and the Wales Africa Health Links Network are offering guidance to local linking organisations and charities supporting or whose work is affected by COVID.

Internationalism in Action: Taking a Global Stand

How are internationally-minded individuals in Wales able to contribute to understanding and combating the COVID crisis in any way… on top of looking after themselves and their loved ones in a lockdown? WCIA will be gathering and sharing actions and ideas of people Wales and world-wide via our social media channels, and here:

Community Action

Gemma from Hong Kong shares her experiences of COVID in WCIA’s Global Perspectives blog.

Global Learning

Global Action

Global Partnerships

Global Perspectives: Stories of Solidarity

Campaigner Glenda Fryer with New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern, whose leadership has been praised worldwide, shared her feelings as Kiwis entered a month long lock-down.

At the WCIA, we understand that the outbreak of COVID-19 is difficult for so many people across the world. In uncertain times like these, it is heartwarming to see communities uniting in solidarity, and even song in some cases. We are reaching out to people worldwide to share global perspectives on COVID-19, recognising the global nature of the issue, and some of the similarities and differences of experiences in different countries. We want to identify and share the positive stories emerging from the situation as a source of inspiration for people in these challenging times.

Personal ‘Stories of Solidarity’ from across the world, mapped.

Learning from the Past: Heritage of Cooperation

Bodelwyddan, Denbighshire – Canadian War Graves from 1918-19 Spanish Flu Epidemic (Geograph)

Not since the ‘Spanish Flu’ pandemic of 1918-1920, has the world experienced something of the scale the world is facing today in COVID19. Affecting as many lives globally as World War 1 itself, “Spanish flu” (so called, ironically, as Spain was the only WW1 nation that allowed uncensored reporting on it to save lives), ended up infecting 500 million – of whom 17-100 million died, making it the world’s worst epidemic since the ‘Black Death’ Plague of 1331-1353. In Wales, between 8,700 and 11,400 people are thought to have died.

Alongside Tuberculosis, the combined impact of World War One and Spanish Flu inspired the creation of Wales’ Temple of Peace and Health – home to WCIA today, and opened in 1938 as a beacon for the nation’s efforts to end the scourge of tuberculosis, and secure sustainable peace through global cooperation – initally through the work of the WNMA (Wales National Memorial Association for Eradication of Tuberculosis) and WLNU (Welsh League of Nations Union).

After World War 2, these movements evolved to support creation of the NHS (National Health Service) and the United Nations – two of humanity’s greatest achievements in facilitating cooperation for the common good. In the words of the Temple’s founder, David Davies:

“A ‘Temple of Peace’ is not of bricks and mortar: It is the spirit of man. It is the compact between every man, woman and child, to build a better world.”  

Has a generation taken our grandparents’ inheritance for granted? Over recent decades, support for and resourcing of these ‘institutions of humankind’ has fallen, health services and social care have suffered strident Austerity cuts, and many nations – the UK and US in particular – have turned inwards and away from the very bodies that enable international cooperation in times of crisis.

The COVID Pandemic will seriously test – and potentially reverse – many of these policy approaches. Working in global cooperation and solidarity with others, we will owe it to a generation who lose their lives, to come through this crisis to build a better world.


Welsh First Minister Mark Drakeford addresses the nation on 23 March.  


Tribute to Lifelong Peacemaker Ifanwy Williams

<– Hafan Heddwchwyr 

It is with great sadness that the WCIA team learnt of the passing of lifelong peacemaker Ifanwy Williams, 98, from Porthmadog in Gwynedd on 20th March.

Ifanwy Williams, Porthmadog – Portrait by Lee Karen Stow

Ifanwy may be familiar to Welsh internationalists beyond Snowdonia as the ‘face’ of the “Women War & Peace” Exhibition by WCIA, with international photojournalist Lee Karen Stow, which toured Wales over 2017-20 – and remains on permanent display in Wales’ Temple of Peace and Health in Cardiff.

Ifanwy shared her perspective as a lifelong peace campaigner in a moving interview with Lee, reproduced for International Women’s Day 2018 in her blog post ‘Remember Me: the Changing Face of Memorialisation’, in which she shared Ifanwy’s story: 

“At age 96, Ifanwy Williams (pictured here) has been a member of the peace movement in Wales for seven decades.

Born in Liverpool, Ifanwy was evacuated during the Second World War to Denbigh in Wales. She studied social work and on her gap year went to live in Dinmael, a village occupied by many radicals and non-conformists.

Influenced by those around her, and particularly her older brother Glyn, a conscientious objector and pacifist, she also became a conscientious objector.

For ten years Ifanwy has chaired the Glaslyn and Dwyryd Branch of Cymdeithas y Cymod (Fellowship of Reconciliation in Wales). It was Ifanwy who coined the phrase Adar Angau (death birds/death drones) when the Fellowship began a campaign to raise awareness of plans to test and develop unmanned drone aircraft at the Llanbedr airfield in Snowdonia.

“I aim to be a Christian. I am a pacifist. I don’t believe in killing. There are other ways of meeting difficult situations.’’

Ifanwy was instrumental in setting up Heddwch Nain Mamgu, a community-led group inspired by the 1923-4 Welsh Women’s Peace Petition to America (which was signed by 390,296 women in households Wales-wide, in through a remarkable door-to-door campaign by the Welsh League of Nations Union) – who aim to mobilise a new generation of women peacemakers in the leadup to the centenary of this incredible movement.

Despite the current lockdown UK-wide, friends and networks in the Porthmadog and wider Peace community are organising virtual and online tributes to Ifanwy. WCIA will aim to add links to these tributes as they become available.

Tangnefeddwraig Ifanwy Williams, 1922-2020: gan Llinos Griffin, Gwefus.

N Wales Daily Post Funeral Notices, March 23rd 2020:

“WILLIAMS Ifanwy Mawrth 20fed 2020. Bu farw Ifanwy Williams o Borthmadog yn 98 oed yn dawel yn Ysbyty Gwynedd ar ôl salwch byr. Mam gariadus a ffrind arbennig a ffyddlon i nifer fawr o gyfeillion a pherthnasau. Ymgyrchwraig brwd ar hyd ei bywyd dros Heddwch, Cymru a’r iaith Gymraeg ac yn erbyn Anghyfartaledd o bob math. Cristion i’r carn. Ysbrydoliaeth i lawer. Bydd colled enfawr ar ei hol. Trefniadau angladd i’w cadarnhau eto, ond mae’n orfodol cyfyngu ar y nifer. Gwasanaeth coffa i’w gynnal yn nes ymlaen yn y flwyddyn a chasgliad er cof amser hynny. Manylion pellach drwy law’r ymgymerwyr Pritchard a Griffiths Cyf., Heol Dulyn, Tremadog – 01766 512091”


Glenda, New Zealand: Stories of Solidarity during COVID19

Global perspectives: Stories of solidarity during COVID-19

At the WCIA, we understand that the outbreak of COVID-19 is difficult for so many people across the world. In uncertain times like these, it is heartwarming to see communities uniting in solidarity, and even song in some cases. We are reaching out to people worldwide to share global perspectives on COVID-1, recognising the global nature of the issue, and some of the similarities and differences of experiences in different countries. We want to identify and share the positive stories emerging from the situation as a source of inspiration for people in these challenging times.

Click here to view our Global Perspectives map sharing solidarity stories from all over the world 


Glenda Fryer, Councillor and Lecturer, on the ‘moment New Zealand chooses our Path’

Shared on Saturday 21 March 2020 from Auckland, New Zealand

As I write this our Prime Minister Jacinda Adern has just spoken ‘to the nation’ (see below) at midday Saturday to say we are at alert ‘level 2’ of four levels.  All of the 53 ‘positive’ cases, apart from two cases, are  overseas travel related.  In  2 new cases today “community contagion can’t be ruled out”.

Shops, restaurants and bars are still all open, although there has been some ‘panic buying’ in supermarkets.  Garden Centres are getting a rush on winter vegetable plants… which refreshingly means more home gardening by families.

Only two schools are closed due to specific ‘possible’ cases, although the University of Auckland has just closed classes and put learning online, and the Mayor yesterday announced closing all Art Galleries and performance theatres, libraries, swimming pools and recreation centres.  I’ll have to do my ‘get fit’ classes myself at home!

There are certainly less people on the road driving, with more people working from home. Rush hour isn’t a rush anymore.

“I feel we in New Zealand are savouring our ‘flattening of the curve’ or the ‘calm before the storm’.”

With the quick border controls the Government brought in, and the substantial financial packages for small-medium businesses and workers and contractors who find they are laid off.  Beneficiaries received comfort too with more money in their pocket…$65 dollars a week until the end of September ($40 of this are a ‘winter energy payment’).

NZ starts making the move to self-isolation

There are no NZ deaths so far and from what I gather, only a few of these 53 are in hospital; most are self-isolating at home.

The main challenges will be when community contagion is detected, more clamp down occurs. And people lose their jobs and stop paying bills.  While the Government assistance will help for a while, medium term uncertainty will abound.  Also some kiwis have family stuck in far flung cities who were unable to get a flight before flights stopped.  Air New Zealand has been loaned $900 million dollars so they can keep flying (the Governments owns 52% of the airline), and I understand there are plans being worked through to bring them home where they want to return.  But the Government has just today warned kiwis not to take domestic holidays….so even internal flights will be at a minimum.

Most suburban and rural communities have their own Facebook site, that are well curated, and which until now have mainly been for lost/found animals, and free furniture and goods.  I am part of four and they’ve all have wonderful souls offering to visit them and chat (at a distance) and get groceries.

Yesterday a Fox Glacier pilot took an overseas couple for a flight and they revealed they’d only been in NZ for two days.  They hadn’t self-isolated as they had promised, so he alerted Police. When they landed the Police were waiting for them. 

Unlike Europe, New Zealand is just over its very dry summer….and winter is coming… but we feel lucky to have a very competent Prime Minister and Government to steer us through the coming 12-18 months ahead.

New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern addresses the nation at midday Saturday 21st March, to confirm the nation’s move to ‘Level 2’ COVID Response. She has also held special Coronovirus Press Conferences for Children.

Her husband thanked New Zealanders via Twitter for their expressions of support in looking after their baby daughter Neve.   


Glenda Fryer is an ex Auckland City Councillor, Union Organiser and Lecturer in Auckland University of Technology, and local campaigner in the PM’s constituency.



Imogen, London (Journalist & Humanitarian Worker): Stories of Solidarity during COVID-19

Global perspectives: Stories of solidarity during COVID-19

At the WCIA, we understand that the outbreak of COVID-19 is difficult for so many people across the world. In uncertain times like these, it is heartwarming to see communities uniting in solidarity, and even song in some cases.We are reaching out to people worldwide to share global perspectives on COVID-19, recognising the global nature of the issue, and some of the similarities and differences of experiences in different countries. We want to identify and share the positive stories emerging from the situation as a source of inspiration for people in these challenging times.

Click here to view our Global Perspectives map sharing solidarity stories from all over the world 


Imogen Wall, Journalist & Humanitarian Worker, on Personal Perspectives

Imogen is a Journalist who has worked in humanitarian crises worldwide from Aceh to Haiti, and a regular contributor to The New Humanitarian, Guardian Development and Fifty Shades of Aid.

Shared on Saturday 21 March 2020 from London, UK (initially posted via Facebook)


Okay. So I’ve (largely) kept my peace so far on this whole pandemic thing, even though I’m working on it, because I’m not an epidemiologist/virologist/immunologist – and I’ve seen enough over the years (this is my sixth epidemic response) to know just how seriously dorky all of that is. When it comes to all that, UK Chief Med Officer Chris Whitty is Da Man and I got nothing. But now a lot of people are talking about going into self isolation, lockdown etc – and that IS something I know a bit about.

Like most aid workers, I’ve been stuck because of hurricanes, home bound due to political crises and once got stranded in a hotel suite in Haiti with a BBC Radio 4 team for four days with only one pair of knickers. I’m also a mental health first aider, and qualified therapist. So let’s just say I have a few lessons I’ve learned the hard way, which mostly boil down to how to take care of yourself and others.

And now I’m at home alone with a glass of wine and nothing better to do, so here goes:

DON’T PANIC – easier said than done but it doesn’t help. Deep breath everyone. We’re in this for the long haul so start with that assumption.

REACTIONS: everyone reacts differently to emergencies. Some people information-seek like mad, some get angry, some pick fights (in real life or on social media), some panic, some make a LOT of jokes, some deny the problem, some become terribly terribly active and efficient and want to help, some withdraw and fall off the radar. These are, fundamentally, all coping mechanisms for the same thing, which is at its root a deep sense of fear and loss of control. They’re all valid. Bottom line: we’ll need to be kind to each other, and that includes if someone is being aggressive or argumentative or overbearing. Experience suggest that we’ll all have a bit of a meltdown, and probably a cry, at some point. It’s just the way it goes.

Right now, we’re at that moment – the top of the roller coaster when we all look down. It’s horrible. But it doesn’t last.

RIGHT NOW IS ONE OF THE WORST BITS: the worst bit of crises is that moment when everyone collectively realises the severity of what we are facing and goes, oh shit. The moment at the top of the roller coaster when we all look down. It’s horrible. But it doesn’t last. In a little while everything will normalise and find a new rhythm. It’ll be a different life, and a (much) harder one for some, but it’ll have structure and routine. I’ve been in camps of disaster survivors a week after an earthquake – and there are always, already, communities reforming, hairdressers opening up, coffee shops. Humans are incredibly adaptable. Also, you are about to find out just how many amazing people you have around you. This is one of the best bits.

THERE WILL BE GOOD BITS. I always struggle to explain why I loved working in crises, but it basically boils down to the fact that when the chips are down, people are just incredible at looking after each other. You’ll never see community cohesion, support offered to strangers and kindness like that which emerges in crisis situations. Unimportant things melt away, at least for a while, and stark choices ask of us all: who ARE you? Love your friends and family and take care of them – they are what will get you through this, and you them. You’ll see people do amazing things, things you’ll never forget. And you’ll do amazing things too.

“When the chips are down, people are just incredible at looking after each other. You’ll never see community cohesion, support offered to strangers and kindness like that which emerges in crisis situations.”

EXERCISE: yoga is great when you’re stuck indoors and so are online classes, but if you’ve got an outdoor area or a bit of space indoors you really can’t beat skipping for getting your heart rate up in seconds (and making you feel better). If you don’t have a rope, washing line (esp the pastic kind) is an excellent substitute. Even a few minutes and you’ll feel loads better (if quite out of breath). Or put on some music and dance dance dance (you won’t even have to pretend no one can see you). That will lift your soul as well as your heart rate.

BOOZE: Hurray for a crisis in which wine stockpiling is an option. If you can only manage one bottle of spirits, go for vodka. I know, I know – I’m a gin girl myself, but it does tend to need tonic / ice / lemon which can be harder to source than liquor. Vodka can be sloshed into anything, drunk neat and at a, pinch warm. Plus in extremis, it’s a decent disinfectant (let’s hope you don’t need to go there). Having said that, if you insist on gin, Morrisons is doing a litre of bombay sapphire for £18 which is a stone cold steal. And stock up on tonic too.

STOCKPILING: Include some treats among the basic – trust me, you have NO IDEA how obsessed it is possible to become about nice eats. There have been times in my life when cheese was seriously the most exciting thing in the entire world. A diet of baked beans/pasta will keep you going, but it will get VERY dull and won’t help your mental health. Also, loo paper really doesn’t taste great. Easter eggs are half price, people! Chocolate, sweets, your comfort food of choice should all in there if that’s your bag, but my top tip is things that keep like cured meats, waxed cheese, tasty things in tins and smoked salmon. If you can afford it, do a bit of stockpiling at delis – they also need your business more than the big supermarkets. Delish, better than plain sugar and if it *really* gets bad, in a ‘middle class’ barter economy… the ultimate trump card (wait till you see what your mates will do for a packet of prosciutto when scarcity really bites).

“You have NO IDEA how obsessed you can become about nice eats. There have been times in my life when cheese was seriously the most exciting thing in the entire world.”

TRANSPORT: If you haven’t got a bike, think about getting one. If you have, get it serviced (did mine today). Definitely going to be the most reliable, safest and healthiest way of getting around in cities at least and when you do go out, and might be only even remotely safe way of socialising for a while. Plus panniers make shopping v convenient. If you have a car, brim it – fuel shortages aren’t on the cards right now but better safe than sorry.

ACTIVITIES: Cook. Garden. Knit, Draw. Do things with your hands (stop sniggering at the back) that don’t involve a screen. It’s basically meditation and and will relieve stress better than anything involving a screen.

MAKE USEFUL FRIENDS – with people like your local corner shop owner. Even if they are forced to close, they will have the connections to get you stuff. In Indonesia we agreed to turn a blind eye to a local trader plugging into our electrical supply, as long as he stocked my housemate’s favorite ciggies. They’re the ones who’ll keep you in prosciutto…

MEDICINES: If you get Covid you’re almost certainly going to have to home treat. Other people will be better placed to advise on this than me… – TAKE ADVICE FROM ACTUAL MEDICAL PROFESSIONALS – but you’ll need stuff like painkillers, things like lemsip and detergent to keep your bedding and clothes as disease free as possible. The advice is loads of fluids so things to make water taste nice (my choice is Ribena).

HELP: Ask for it if you need it – there are no prizes for suffering in silence. The Mutual Aid people are amazing. But there are also, sadly, going to be scammers taking advantage of this situation (already reported in Haringey). Ask for ID and an organiser contact, don’t give them money without a receipt and definitely not your bank card. And don’t put up with any nonsense: if anyone harasses you, report them.

LIMIT SOCIAL MEDIA, and realise your own susceptibility to rumours. The mill goes mad at times like this. From hot water treatments to believing that the military are about to take over, the myths fly around and we’ll ALL fall for at least some of them at some point. It’s not stupidity, it’s human nature: scared people are really bad at evaluating data and especially risk. Clever people if anything are even more susceptible because they believe they are too smart to fall for misleading info. They are wrong. And don’t gloat if you catch them out – it’ll be you next.

LIMIT NEWS EXPOSURE: In addition to feeding the rumour mill, spending too much time watching the news will just create stress. Likewise, spend too much time online and sure as COVID is COVID you’ll find infinite rabbit holes and do very bad things to your mental health. Staying up all night reading is not going to make you an instant epidemiologist, just sleep deprived which makes everything worse. Ration it, trust reliable sources (like the NHS COVID Updates) and make like the BBC: double source everything you hear, ESPECIALLY if you really want to believe it is true. Turn it off, go outside and feel the spring sunshine.

EXPECT MORE CHANGE: we don’t know very much about this bug yet, and the scientists are learning more every day. The advice will alter on that basis. It’s not because our evil government is trying to kill us, it’s because they’re finding out new things all the time about how it affects different groups and what works. This happens in every epidemic: it’s weird to us but it’s normal-outbreakness (and completely fascinating if you’re a nerd, which all outbreak professionals are at heart).

SMALL GESTURES mean a HUGE amount. Flowers left on someone’s doorstep. A card saying I’m thinking of you. A phone call, a direct message. The last slice of aforementioned prosciutto. They take on a real disproportionate impact. I will never forget one particular person arriving in a particularly tight spot with a can of cold diet coke for me. Even tho we’re no longer friends that remains. Do the little things, they HUGELY count.

A light moment in Haiti.

HUMOUR is also uber important. So important that sometimes I see aid worker job descriptions that actually ask for this as a qualification (don’t ask me how they test that at interview): never forget the healing power of a good giggle. Especially good with children. Make yourself and the people around you laugh and you’ll all feel better (there’s actual science around this). Everything from watching comedy shows to sharing memes (the meme game on COVID-19 is impressively on point). If you lose your sense of humour, take that as a warning sign that you’re not doing OK.

UNDERLYING PROBLEMS don’t go away. One of the things about crises is that they seem like the only show in town. But people’s day to day problems don’t stop, they only get compounded. If you’re in an unhappy relationship, mentally ill, dealing with addiction or infertility, coping with a family death, or your identity has been stolen or you’re in a custody battle then these things don’t stop – they just get compounded, but everyone else tends to forget. So if this is one of your mates, keep taking care of them on that level too.

ONE DAY IT WILL BE OVER. The day will come when we meet up for drinks, and gather for dinners, and laugh and raise glasses and chat and hug and relax together again. Taste the sweetness of friendship and casual conversation and trivia and a life without this care. Every day we go through this is a day closer to that day. Maybe we’ll even be better people in a better world – one in which we can get a jab for COVID-19 and forget about it, and maybe even one in which the antivaxxers have finally shut the hell up. But if we’re not, this will have ended.

And the rest of our lives – blessed as they are, in this country (the UK) and continent where we do not face these kind of restrictions and far, FAR worse, every day of our lives, as so many do, and because we live in the age of modern medicine – will be epidemic free. We’ll back to the humdrum existence of ‘first world problems’, of complaining about nothing – but maybe perhaps with new knowledge of our neighbourhoods and new friends, because that’s who the strangers on our streets turned out to be in a pinch. I’m raising a glass tonight, to that today. One day soon, I know we’ll raise one together.

And in the meantime, keeping spare knickers in my handbag. Just in case.



Y ‘Gwych a’r Da’: Seremoni Agoriadol Teml Heddwch Cymru, Tach 1938

Lluniwyd gan Craig Owen, Cymru dros Heddwch o ymchwil a baratowyd yn wreiddiol gan wirfoddolwyr WCIA Hannah Sweetapple (Haf 2016), Peter Garwood a Thywysydd Gwirfoddol ‘Teithiau’r Deml’ Frank Holloway, Haf 2017 ac Anna Carlile, Hydref 2018; ymchwiliwyd i ddeunydd ychwanegol gan Archifydd y Deml Mari Lowe, Ffion Fielding, a Dr Emma West, Prifysgol Birmingham ar gyfer ein harddangosfa 2018 ‘ Cymru dros Heddwch ‘. Mae’r darn terfynol wedi’i olygu a’i ddatblygu gan Craig Owen ar gyfer cyfres ‘Erthyglau ar Heddychwyr ‘ WCIA.


<– Hafan Heddwchwyr 

Atodiad yn y Western Mail, 23 Tach 1938

Yn ystod y misoedd ers Dathliadau Teml80 ym mis Tachwedd 2018 – yn nodi 80 mlynedd ers agor Teml Heddwch ac Iechyd Cymru ar 23 Tachwedd 1938 – mae llawer o ddiddordeb wedi bod yn Archifau’r Deml, taflenni trefn gwasanaeth gwreiddiol o’r diwrnod hanesyddol, a chasgliadau’r dogfennau wedi’u digideiddio a roddwyd at ei gilydd gan wirfoddolwyr Cymru dros Heddwch rhwng 2014-19.

Pwrpas yr erthygl hon yw dod â’r cysylltiadau hyn at ei gilydd, a chynnig mwy o ddyfnder a mewnwelediad i’r seremonïau ffurfiol a’r areithiau a wnaed ar y dydd, gan y sylfaenydd yr Arglwydd Davies a ‘ Mam Cymru ‘ Minnie James (a agorodd y Deml), i anerchiadau’r ‘Gwych a’r Da’ – a phwy oedden nhw – yn ogystal â negeseuon gan Arweinwyr y Byd fel Arlywydd yr UDA, Roosevelt a Phrif Weinidog Awstralia, Billy Hughes.

Mae’n bwysig darllen yr erthygl gyfan hon yng nghyd-destun ei lleoliad hanesyddol mewn amser. Wrth i’r Deml Heddwch agor ym 1938, roedd codiad Hitler yn yr Almaen, ynghyd ag argyfyngau eraill wedi gwanhau Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd, a dim ond 10 mis oedd cyn i’r Ail Ryfel Byd dorri. Ond ar y pwynt hwn, nid oedd neb yn gwybod eto beth oedd yn mynd i ddigwydd; fyddai apelio’n gweithio? Mae llawer o’r areithiau’n cyfeirio at yr hinsawdd ansicr hon.

Archif, Deunyddiau a Dolenni

Gosod y Garreg Sylfaen, 1937

Gosod carreg sylfaen y Deml Heddwch, Ebrill 1937

Gosodwyd y garreg sylfaen gan yr Arglwydd Halifax Arglwydd y Sêl Gyfrin a’r Dirprwy Ysgrifennydd Tramor, ar ddydd Iau, 8 Ebrill 1937. Yn y cefndir o luniau, ceir cytiau lle’r oedd bagiau tywod yn cael eu cynhyrchu ar gyfer llochesi ysbeilio’r awyr –paratoadau’n mynd rhagddynt ar gyfer y rhyfel, arwydd o’r amser cythryblus i ddod. Nododd ei araith y diwrnod hwnnw:

“the new building would be symbolic of the dedication of thought to two great purposes – national health and international peace, both of which had become vital landmarks in the life of the people during the last twenty or thirty years. Nothing had been more remarkable than the way in which our common civic and national thought had come to rank physical health high because of the degree with which we recognised how important was the place that public health occupied in the capacity of our people to discharge worthily the duties of citizenship.

Twenty years previously anybody who tried to think internationally was in danger of being voted a theorist, a sentimentalist, and a crank. Now everybody knew that, whatever their political party and policy, it was imperative to appreciate the importance of international relations, because civilisation itself directly depended up the adjustments they might be able to make.

In a world where anxiety about security was leading everywhere to re-armament, those who loved peace needed to be strong if they were to make their voice heard. They must recognise that no final solution was going to be found by the determined removal of the causes of conflict that kept the world uneasy and unquiet. The basis of all true peace, and the only basis of true peace, mist be international good will and conciliation of the conflicting interests of nations.”

Diwrnod Agor y Deml Heddwch, 23 Tach 1938

Agor y Deml Heddwch – ymgynullodd torfeydd yn y glaw

Teml Heddwch ac Iechyd Cymru oedd yr adeilad cyntaf i gael ei adeiladu ym Mhrydain wedi’i adeiladu i’r bwriad penodol o symboleiddio ymroddiad Cymru a’i phobl i ddau achos dyngarol mawr.  Yn sgil dylunio’r Deml  gan y Pensaer o Gaerdydd, Syr Percy Thomas-ac ennill Medal Aur Brenhinol 1939 am Bensaernïaeth –gwireddwyd cysyniad a fu’n bresennol am flynyddoedd lawer ym meddyliau ei sylfaenwyr – yn arbennig, yr Arglwydd David Davies – ac mae wedi darparu heneb, er mwyn coffáu gweithredoedd y gorffennol ac i fynegi dyheadau ar gyfer y dyfodol.

“From the remotest ages mankind has endeavoured to symbolise its ideas through the medium of buildings and architecture. The Temple of Peace and Health was intended to be not merely an architectural ornament but the visible expression of two ideals. The first was crystalized in the tribute to the memory of King Edward VII in the form of national campaign to eradicate the scourge of tuberculosis from the Principality. The second was the crusade for world peace in which Wales has always played a leading part. It is therefore fitting that the first British building to be dedicated to these noble causes should have been erected on Welsh soil.”

Minnie James gyda’r Arglwydd Davies (sylfaenydd) a Percy Thomas (pensaer) yn paratoi i agor Teml Heddwch Cymru.

Pwrpas y Deml oedd gwasanaethu fel arwydd allanol a gweladwy o deyrngarwch a ffyddlondeb pobl Cymru i egwyddorion ac amcanion Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd. Yn y seremoni agoriadol, dywedodd yr Arglwydd Davies:

“It is not intended to be a mausoleum, and because, in 1938, dark clouds overshadowed Europe, that was no reason why we should have put up the shutters and draw down the blinds. On the contrary, this was the time for constancy and courage, this was a time when we, both as individuals and as a nation, should humbly re-dedicate ourselves to the service of the great tasks that lay before us. It was hoped that the Temple of Peace and Health would come to be regarded as the shrine of all that we hold most dear, and that it would prove to be of real service to the future welfare of humanity as the symbol of our determination to work for a better world.”

Ar y diwrnod, roedd trên arbennig wedi gadael Paddington am 8.20 a.m. i gyrraedd Caerdydd am 11.20 a.m. Yna, defnyddiwyd coetsis i gludo’r mamau a chynrychiolwyr eraill i Deml Heddwch ac Iechyd Cenedlaethol Cymru.

Roedd y tywydd y diwrnod hwnnw yn ddiwrnod nodweddiadol ym mis Tachwedd, gyda gwyntoedd cryfion a oedd wedi rhwygo canghennau oddi ar goed ym Mharc Cathays.

Mae llawer o’r ffotograffau ac yn wir, darnau ffilmiau yn adlewyrchu tywydd tymhestlog y dydd – gyda llawer o sylwebyddion y cyfryngau yn arsylwi sut roedd hyn yn adlewyrchu’r cyd-destun ar gyfer materion rhyngwladol yng nghyfnod stormus ac ansicr 1938, er bod un erthygl wedi tynnu sylw at y ffaith bod ‘ enfys wedi torri allan ‘ yn seremoni agoriadol y Deml.

Yr Henadur Syr Charles Bird

Yr Henadur Syr Charles Bird, Cadeirydd WNMA

Am 11.45, cafwyd anerchiad cyflwyniadol ar risiau’r Deml gan yr Henadur Syr Charles H. Bird C. B. E, Cadeirydd Bwrdd yr Ymddiriedolwyr. Dywedodd:

“We are assembled here to day to take part in the solemn dedication of this building for the noble purposes for which it was erected.

It had been put into the heart of one man that some permanent memorial should be set up which not only enshrine the memories of the many Welshmen who gave their lives in the service of their country in the Great War but would at the same time serve the useful purposes of headquarters of two great Welsh National institutions.” He added that he “wished to place on record the gratitude of the people of Wales for Lord Davies’s great and varied public services to the Principality.

The first of the organisations is the King Edward VII Welsh National Memorial Association which has done so much to restore health and happiness to many of the Welsh people who had been stricken with tuberculosis, and in still increasing measure is being used to stem the tide of that dread disease in our midst.

“The second is the Welsh National Council of the League of Nations Union, a movement which under happier auspices, and with more loyal support, might have led the world into a great sense of security than exists at the present moment.

” Much thought has been given to the question as to who should be asked to unlock the door on the occasion of to-day’s function, and it was felt that no better choice could be made than some representative Welsh mother, to represent not only the mothers of Wales and the Empire, who lost their sons in the Great War, but also to the mothers of other countries, the loss of whose sons has brought such poignant sorrow to them, whatever their nationality may be.

” So it is that we have with us today Mrs James of Dowlais who lost three of her sons, and we are all happy in the knowledge that she has been spared to join with us in this ceremony of dedication.

” It is, therefore , with great sense of the honourable position to which I have been appointed as chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Welsh National Temple of peace and Health, that I now call upon Mr Percy Thomas, the architect of this building to present Mrs James with the key, and to request her to perform the opening ceremony.

Minnie James o Dowlais – Mam Cymru

Darllenwch fwy am ‘Minnie James a Mamau Cymru a’r Byd ‘

Yn y seremoni, roedd Mrs James yn gwisgo het ac yn dal tusw mawr o garnasiwns coch a roddwyd gan yr Anrhydeddus Arglwyddes Davies ac yn gwisgo pob un o’r tair set o fedalau oedd yn perthyn i’w meibion.

Rhoddwyd Allwedd Aur iddi gan Mr Percy Thomas, y Pensaer, i agor drysau’r Deml. Meddai “Mrs James I have pleasure in presenting you with this key and asking you to accept it as a little token of this what I know must be a memorable occasion for you.” Meddai Mrs Jams “Thank you”. Rhoddodd araith fer:

“In the name of the women of Wales it is my privilege to open the building. I dedicate it to the memorial to those gallant men of all nations who gave their lives in the war that was to end war. I pray that it may come to be regarded by the people of my country both of our generation and of those that are to follow as a constant reminder of the debt we owe to the millions who sacrificed their all; in a great cause, and as a symbol of our determination, to strive for justice and peace in the future.”

Am ei bod yn siarad mewn llais isel, ac er gwaethaf y meicroffon, dywedodd y papurau newydd nad oedd pob un o’r cannoedd o bobl a oedd yn bresennol yn gallu ei chlywed.

Mamau yn y Deml oedd wedi dioddef profedigaeth yn sgil rhyfel

Yna, cymerodd yr allwedd o’r blwch cyflwyno, a rhoi’r allwedd aur yng nghlo’r drysau efydd, yn symbolaidd.  Gwthiodd y drws ar agor, a hi oedd y person cyntaf o’r rheiny a ymgynullodd y tu allan, i fynd i mewn i’r Deml Heddwch newydd ei hagor. Daeth y gwesteion i mewn i’r Neuadd Fawr ac eistedd i lawr. Yna, aeth Mrs James a’r mamau oedd wedi colli plant i’r Neuadd Fawr, a safodd y dorf oedd wedi ymgynnull i fyny, wrth i’r mamau oedd wedi dioddef profedigaeth a’r cynrychiolwyr eraill ddod i mewn.  Fe gerddon nhw i lawr yr eil ganol i’r platfform. Safodd cannoedd o westeion o bob cwr o’r byd mewn teyrnged a pharch.

Cysegru Neuadd y Cenhedloedd: Trefn y Gwasanaeth:

Organ Hammond y Deml Heddwch, a ailddarganfuwyd yn yr Islawr, 2018

Chwaraewyd yr organ Hammond gan Mr W. H. Gabb, Organydd a Meistr Côr Cadeirlan Llandaf, trefnwyd y gerddoriaeth gan Syr Walford Davies K.C.V.D. Dechreuodd Mr H. W. Gabb chwarae emyn a dechreuodd Côr Eglwys Gadeiriol Llandaf, yn fechgyn a dynion, ganu. Yr emyn gyntaf oedd: “O God our help in ages past.”

Darllenodd Deon Llandaf, y Tra Pharchedig D.J. Jones ddarn, sef Micha 1-7, o’r ysgrythurau a chynigiodd Archesgob Cymru, Dr C. A. H. Green, y Parch. Dr Robert Bond, Llywydd Cyngor Ffederal yr Eglwysi Rhyddion, a’r Parchedig Harris Jerevitch weddïau cysegriadol.

Dechreuodd y Parch Dr Elvet Lewis siarad yn Gymraeg ac yna, gorffennodd ei sylwadau yn Saesneg,“So this day we dedicate this Temple for Peace and Health. Health will make for better peace and peace will make for better health, and then the blessing of God will come on all people around us in god fellowship, in kindness, and in a harmony that will last forever.”


Safodd y mamau a ddewiswyd i gynrychioli gwledydd o bob cwr o’r byd i fyny a siarad. Yn gyntaf, roedd Mrs E. Lewer o Aldeburgh yn siarad ar ran mamau Prydain Fawr, ac yna, siaradodd Mrs R Struben o Undeb De Affrica, ar ran mamau’r Gymanwlad Brydeinig. Dywedodd Mrs Cederlund o Sweden ar ran gwledydd Scandinafia “In the name of the women of Scandinavia I associate myself with the dedication of this building. May it be a constant reminder to the people of Wales of their duty to further the cause of progress, freedom, peace, and justice and of the debt they owe to those who fell in the defence of these ideals.” Siaradodd Mrs Mollerdros UDA a Madame Dumontier o Ffrainc dros wledydd Ewrop.

Darllenodd pump o’r mamau – yn cynrychioli llawer o’r byd – negeseuon o ewyllys da o’u hardaloedd, gan siarad yn eu hieithoedd eu hunain.

Is-iarll Cecil, Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd

Am hanner dydd, dechreuodd yr Is-iarll Cecil o Chelwood, wasanaeth o ymroddiad, gan annerch y rheiny oedd yn bresennol. Dywedodd:

“The Temple inaugurated a new centre of happiness from which would radiate all over the world a new impulse. Here was no set-back in the progress of conquering disease, but unhappily, that could not be said in regard to the other ideal of the Temple of Peace. Peace was being assailed almost throughout the world, and it required courage and faith at such a time to erect the monument opened that day. It was a splendid gesture and an inspiration to those working for peace.

This was one of the occasions when he ought to recall that his ancestors came originally from Wales, but, unfortunately, they did not bequeath him that eloquence that was so common among Welshmen. All I can do today is to say a few simple words of what this building means to me. The touching and impressive images we have just received from the mothers is one aspect of it. This is a great memorial of the past, That is right and proper, but to my thinking its main significance is not in reference to the past, but in reference to the future. We are here to inaugurate, I hope, a new centre of health, from which will be radiated all over Wales, all over Britain, and in the end all over the world, a new stimulus for the two great causes in connection with which it has been built.

As far as health was concerned its importance (the Temple) was enormous. But that matter was simple. There is no controversy about it. We all desire to see the health of the people improve. We all know what great work had been achieved in connection with that White Man’s scourge- tuberculosis by the organisation with which Lord Davies has been so long and so honourably connected. That is a splendid thing. We hope that this building would assist in carrying forward that great work. No setback had occurred in the march of progress in that respect and we hope that march will continue and be accelerated in the future.

And then about the other great cause – the cause of Peace. Here one admits the matter is more difficult. Peace is being assailed almost throughout the world. We look around the nations – there is scarcely one that is not preparing desperately for war. Nor is that all. Wars are actually raging in the east and in the west. Surely it required great courage and faith at this time to erect a monument like this, the object of which is to further peace, particularly through the League of Nations. That seems to me, I must say, a splendid gesture.

Lord Davies asks us not to be cast down by the past but to turn our eyes to the future, to consider what each one of us can do, inspired by such great effort as this to further the cause of peace.

Let us consider what it is that we mean by peace. I believe no one here will contradict when I say peace is much more than the absence or escape from war, or even from the successive threats of war. We aim at something much more than that. We aim at a new spirit among all the nations of the world. No doubt in the old days all that statesmen could do was to turn from the threat of war when it arose, to ward it off as it were by successful diplomacy. That was all that could be done. But it was not satisfactory. We did the best we could in this and other countries under the old system.

But we cannot forget, least of all on an occasion like that this, that old system ended in the catastrophe of 1914.That was why the nations came together after the War to consider what could be done for the future, though they did many foolish things.

They did try to set up some new system that would be a barrier against war. That part of their work – though it is not as strong as we would wish – still exists in the League of Nations. It is unnecessary, I am sure, for me to remind you of what the League is, nor have I the time, nor is this the proper occasion to go into a detailed explanation or a defence of the League of Nations. It is enough for me to say that it was built on two great conceptions.

One was that the nations had more in common with each other than they had of opposition, and if they could only be brought to see it each one of them would flourish and get stronger and happier and better the more they could co-operate with one and other.

International co-operation – as you will see in the preamble of the Covenant – was put into the forefront of the plan by which nations should be welded together through the League. That was what was intended by this great institution. International co-operation was the primary base, and then, in order to bring forth its fruits, there was the other great idea that nations must combine with one and other in order to prevent invasion or aggression on any one of their number. Those were the two conceptions on which the League of Nations was built. I know some people think it was a kind of brain-wave of President Wilson’s – that he had produced a new-fangled scheme and all the rest of it. No one who has looked into the history of this question will think that for one moment. There is a vast array – a chain of authority going back to the earliest ages of civilisation – of those who have thought and considered this question, who came to the conclusion that the only way in which peace could be maintained was by some such combination of nations for this purpose. I cannot cite all the authorities but I can cite two.

The Late Lord Salisbury was one of the greatest authorities of his day on foreign affairs, and at the end of his life he made a speech at the Guildhall in London- I think it was about 1907 – reviewing the then position of international affairs. The situation was not very unlike what it is now, although much less acute. Nations were building armaments against one and other and preparing for war. He pointed out that they could only end in disaster. And then he said we must hope that they will turn from this futile policy and form some international constitution which by its great strength will secure peace for a long time. That was said long before the League of Nations came into existence. We could scarcely have had a more precise prophecy of what was essential to save the world from disaster. Then I will mention one other great authority – Lord Grey of Falodon. He lived to see the League established and, after it had been brought into existence, he said publicly: “If this had only existed in 1914, we might have been spared the war of that year.”

Those are statements showing the kind of authority that lies behind this great conception. Believe me, there are only two possible ways of dealing with international relations. One is for all the nations to treat one and other as enemies: for each to say “Let us struggle to the utmost, let us aim at the survival of the fittest, let us apply to international life the principles of the jungle.” That is the one conception and unhappily, it has great advocates at the present time.

The other conception is that the nations must combine together, that they must protect on another, that they must establish in international affairs, as they have established in national affairs, the Rule of law. These are the only two conceptions that exist effectively at the present time.

Who can doubt for which of those two exceptions we should work. Do not let us forget all that the League has done. Till a few years ago it advanced steadily in strength and reputation. Now the whole basis of the League, the conception of the Rule of law in international affairs, has been challenged. It is for us to say whether that challenge should succeed. This building is Lord Davies’ reply.

Here, he says, is this magnificent erection, in this great centre of effort, we will renew the fight, we will make it stronger and stronger, until we have established, first in this country, and then throughout the world, the conception that right is might and that justice will prevail.

Negeseuon gan Arweinwyr y Byd

Yna, darllenwyd nifer o negeseuon gan yr Henadur, Syr Charles Bird:

32ain Arlywydd yr Unol Daleithiau Franklin D Roosevelt

Anfonodd yr Arlywydd Roosevelt delegram yn llongyfarch drwy Mr Joseph Davies U.D.A. Llysgennad yng Ngwlad Belg:

“President Roosevelt has authorised me to convey to the committee , Lord Davies and those associated with him his congratulations on this monument to the ideal of international peace, based upon law and order, in contrast to force. The President has expressed to me his belief that the achievements of past civilisations and the hopes for all future development of the human race depend on the projection and adoption of this ideal as a basic principle in relations between nations on earth.”

Billy Hughes, 7fed Prif Weinidog Awstralia 1915-23

Roedd y Gwir Anrhydeddus William M. Hughes o Gabinet Awstralia (7fed Prif Weinidog Awstralia) wedi anfon telegram:

“As a Welshman and a Freeman of Cardiff, I offer my congratulations and sincere hope that the project will be crowned with success.”

Prif Ustus y Goruchaf Lys 1930-41, Charles Evans Hughes

Anfonodd Mr Charles Evans Hughes, Prif Ustus Goruchaf Lys yr Unol Daleithiau neges:

“Heartiest congratulations on the establishment of the Temple of Health and Peace. May this Temple be not only memorial but a constant inspiration”.

David Lloyd George, Prif Weinidog y DU 1916-22

Anfonodd y cyn Prif Weinidog ac arweinydd y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, Mr Lloyd George delegram yn nodi:

“Wales owes gratitude to Lord Davies for the present munificence with which he has founded in our midst a Temple consecrated to the ideal of peace on earth and happiness amongst men.”

Yna, canodd y gwesteion Anthem Genedlaethol Cymru, gan gloi gydag Anthem Genedlaethol y DU. Wrth i’r cyfan adael, chwaraeodd yr organydd “Occasional Overtures” gan Handel.


Cinio Dinesig yn Neuadd y Ddinas – Areithiau a Llwncdestunau

Am 1 p.m. roeddent yn Neuadd y Ddinas, lle cafwyd derbyniad dinesig gan yr Arglwydd Faer, yr Henadur W. G. Howell J.P, ac Arglwyddes Faer Caerdydd a Chorfforaeth Dinas Caerdydd.





Cinio’r Deml Heddwch yn Neuadd y Ddinas

Rhoddwyd cinio iddynt am 1.15 p.m. Roedd y fwydlen yn helaeth:

  • Grapefruit Cocktail
  • Crème Portugaise
  • Sole Bonne Femme
  • Roast turkey Chipolata
  • Croquette Potatoes
  • Brussel Sprouts Green Peas
  • Passion Fruit Ice Souffle
  • Fresh Fruit Salad and Cream
  • Cheese and Biscuits
  • Coffee.

Rhoddwyd llwncdestun cyntaf y cinio gan y Cadeirydd i “Ei Mawrhydi y Brenin”.

 ‘Cymru a’r Cymry’

Roedd yr ail lwncdestun yn ymwneud â “Cymru a’r Cymry” a roddwyd gan yr Athro Gilbert Murray, M.A., LL.D. a’r Seneddwr, yr Anrhydeddus James J. Davis.

Professor Murray reminded the audience of his own Celtic descent and expressed his gratification at being enabled to participate in such a historic occasion.” One thing which is certainly striking in all thoughts about Wales, is that in an age of nationalism the Principality has always been but a moderate drinker of that heady wine. In Wales we find a great national consciousness, a national pride, but none of the excesses and no ill-feeling, even against those odd English people who surround the Celts in every side.

Professor Murray pointed out that the great strength of Welsh nationality lay in the preservation of its language, and made special reference to the message of peace and goodwill broadcast each year from the Children of Wales to boys and girls in other countries. He expressed his pride at being associated with Lord Cecil and Lord Davies in this latest effort to advance the great cause for world peace and concluded by congratulating the City of Cardiff upon having acquired such a magnificent collection of public buildings in Cathays Park.

Cefnogwyd y llwncdestun gan y Seneddwr James J. Davis, cyn Ysgrifennydd Llafur yr Unol Daleithiau. Tynnodd y Seneddwr Davis sylw at

“the utterance of Abraham Lincoln that Wales, (for its size) had contributed more to the development of America than any other country. He emphasised that sons of Wales were to be encountered in many of the most responsible positions – industrial, professional, public and political – of American life, and declared that every one of them was proud to claim the Principality as “home”. Senator Davis paid a cordial tribute to Lord Davies for his determined efforts to bring about the entry of the United States into the League of Nations and expressed his pleasure at being enabled on this unique occasion to take part in a new effort to promote the brotherhood of man.”

Ymatebodd yr Henadur William Jenkins, a siaradodd yn rhannol yn Gymraeg “congratulated those who were responsible for the organisation of the opening ceremony upon having selected a simple woman of the people to own a building which was intended to symbolise the yearning of the masses all over the world for peace and health. Wales, he continued, had always regarded its Temples as landmarks, and he was especially proud to think that the first great edifice to be erected in Britain should be situated in his own country.

Referring to the services rendered in the cause of internationalism by such great Welshmen as Henry Richard and Tregelis Price, Sir William declared that the people of Wales had always fought for Peace and urged his fellow-countrymen to emulate the sterling example of their predecessors in striving to achieve the success of the greatest all crusades.”

‘Llwncdestunau i’r Deml’

Cafwyd mynegiadau huawdl o ewyllys da am lwyddiant y mudiadau i’w cartrefu yn yr adeilad newydd gan yr Arglwydd Kennet, yr Arglwydd Snell, a’r Arglwydd Meston wrth gynnig trydydd llwncdestun ar y cyd i “Deml Heddwch ac Iechyd Cymru”.

Cynigiwyd gan y Gwir Anrhydeddus Arglwydd Kennet P.C., G.B.E., D.S.O., y Gwir Anrhydeddus Arglwydd Snell, P.C., C.B.E a’r Gwir Anrhydeddus Arglwydd Meston, K.C.S.I.; Ymateb iddo gan y Gwir Anrhydeddus yr Arglwydd Davies.

Yr Arglwydd Kennet

Awgrymodd yr Arglwydd Kennet, er y gallai ymddangos yn anarferol i yfed iechyd “marmor, brics a morter”, y gallent i gyd ymuno i ddymuno’n dda i ddyfodol y fenter fonheddig yr oeddent newydd weld yn cael ei hurddo. Ar ôl cyfeirio at y cyfraniad a wnaed gan benseiri, peirianwyr a chrefftwyr i gwblhau “adeilad hardd ac urddasol”, rhoddodd yr Arglwydd Kennet ganmoliaeth arbennig i’r Arglwydd Davies am ddyfeisio’r syniad o godi teml fawr fel modd o sicrhau bod yr achosion dyngarol hynny y mae eisoes wedi llafurio’n ddiflino iddynt yn cael eu hyrwyddo.

“We know, however, that there is nothing he desires less than praise. Let us therefore give him what he desires most – our heartfelt thanks and warm support in the task he has undertaken.” Mynegodd yr Arglwydd Kennett y diolchgarwch dwys a deimlodd am ysbryd dychmygus a chreadigol Corfforaeth Caerdydd – heb y cydweithrediad hwn, byddai wedi bod yn amhosibl i gysyniad yr Arglwydd Davies gael ei wireddu. Wrth atgoffa’r rhai a oedd yn bresennol ei fod, fel cyn-Weinidog Iechyd, wedi cael cyfleoedd eithriadol i wireddu’r manteision a roddwyd i’r gymuned gan ei gwasanaethau cymdeithasol, meddai “I know of no service rendered more efficiently and with more benefit to the community than that of King Edward VII Welsh National memorial Association. It is a unique institution. The world, so far as I know, has nothing to show elsewhere that is comparable with it.”

Yr Arglwydd Snell

Ymhelaethodd yr Arglwydd Snell ar arwyddocâd cymdeithasol ac ysbrydol y syniad a fynegir yn yr adeilad newydd “We always think of a Temple as the dwelling place of the gods,” meddai ” but this Temple is to be sanctified by its application to the higher purposes of man, Solomon’s temple was no doubt grander, more widely acclaimed, but it was no more socially necessary, and its served no higher purpose than this Temple will serve if it rightly used….. This building will stand as a great moral witness of our desire for peace. It will uplift our spirits. It will stimulate us to perform the tasks required of us. It is at once a witness and a call to duty. It is an inspiration and a commandment. It be Messianic in its influence, in its faith and in its motive, for out of its creative power may spring a people’s health and a beauteous and blessed peace”


Yr Arglwydd Meston

Gosododd yr Arglwydd Meston bwyslais arbennig ar elfen ryngwladol yr ymgynulliad oedd wedi cael ei ddwyn ynghyd i gymryd rhan yn y seremoni agoriadol.Meddai “Your guests have assembled to-day from every quarter and from many lands. They are here representing no party, no prejudices, no class and no creed. We are all one bringing our congratulations, our devotion. “Mynegodd ddiolchgarwch y “lleiafrifoedd” Prydeinig am y drefn a’r heddwch a oedd wedi eu galluogi i ddatblygu eu diwylliant a chynnal eu balchder cenedlaethol. Yn yr amgylchiadau hyn roedd yn teimlo ei fod yn addas dros ben y dylai Cymro fod wedi breintio Prydain gyda’i Deml fawr gyntaf wedi’i chysegru i achos dealltwriaeth ryngwladol. Meddai “To many of us, it seems that the outlook has never been darker, but it may not be that the greatest darkness is just before dawn – that the dawn will break from this Temple here in Wales and that the divinity which it enshrines will soon set forth upon a flight which will cover all mankind?”

Anerchiad yr Arglwydd David Davies

Ymatebodd yr Arglwydd Davies i’r llwncdestun, gydag anerchiad hanesyddol oedd yn cydnabod y sylfeini dynol yr ysbrydolwyd ac adeiladwyd y Deml Heddwch ohonynt.

“My first and pleasant duty is to thank my friends who have proposed this toast, for their eloquent and moving speeches, and their far too kind and generous allusions to myself. We remember with gratitude the invaluable services Lord Kennet has rendered to his country, especially when he presided over the Ministry of Health. Lord Snell, whose wise and dignified utterances we always listen to with so much respect, is an old campaigner in the cause of justice, and, as you are aware, is now Leader of the Labour Party in the House of Lords, whilst Lord Meston, after a distinguished career as one of our proconsuls in India, has recently undertaken the much more formidable task of re-organising the Liberal Party. I am sure we are all proud to welcome them here today.

I also want to thank my old friends and colleagues, Lord Cecil and Professor Gilbert Murray, for their presence on this occasion. They are the pioneers and veterans of the Peace Movement. They belong to the Old Guard and the motto of the Old Guard is “no surrender!” We recollect that Lord Cecil was a member of the Commission which drafted the Covenant of The League. Unlike most Statesmen, he has never repudiated his offspring, but during the last 20 years, with an unrivalled staunchness and determination he has worked indefatigably for the success of The League. I venture to think that if other Statesmen had followed noble example, Europe and indeed, the world, would not be found in the horrible morass they are floundering in to-day.

“Then there is my old friend, Sir William Jenkins. Diolch yn fawr i chwi am eich araith bwysig iawn. Sir William and his friends have staunchly supported the Memorial Association ever since its inception. There are few, indeed, who possess such an intimate knowledge of our problems in South Wales, or who are so closely associated with our national institutions.

“Now I come to our friend and fellow Welshman, the Senator- another Davis, you will observe, who since he left his native shores has somehow lost an “e”.

First let us congratulate him on his recent electoral victory, when the great and historic state of Pennsylvania returned him again to Congress. We are proud of the Senator. First, because he is a Welshman. Secondly, because he has not forgotten the land of his birth, and thirdly, because as Minister of labour, and afterwards as Senator, he has attained to such high and responsible positions in the great republic of the West.


Franklin D Roosevelt

“We have been honoured today by a wonderful message from the President of the United States, for which we are indebted to another Welshman – and indeed, another davies – His Excellency Joseph Davies, the United States Ambassador to Belgium. I am sure we all deeply regret that he is unable, owing to a long-standing engagement, to deliver his President’s message to us in person, especially when we remember his eloquent and inspiring address at the National Eisteddfod. I am sure you will agree that Mr davies has already won for himself a place in the affections of our people.




Charles Evans Hughes

” I must now pass from the Davies’s to the Hughes’s. We are proud to have received the blessing of the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. For many years Mr Charles Evan Hughes played a distinguished part in the political life of his country, where he is now regarded not only as an elder Statesman, but also as America’s foremost jurist. During his brilliant political career and afterwards during his difficult term of office as President of the Supreme Court, he has won the esteem, not only of his fellow-countrymen, but also of the world. We are indeed grateful that this mighty son of Sir Fon for his inspiring message.”




Billy Hughes

“And lastly I come to a great Welshman, who leaving Sir Drefaldwyn at an early age , made his home in the Antipodes, and became the Prime Minister of Australia. We still remember with gratitude the great services (William Morris Hughes) rendered to the British Commonwealth during the World War. He also has not forgotten the land of his fathers, and from the other side of the globe he has sent us a message of God -Speed. Let us then, in return, send our heartfelt thanks and greetings to these illustrious sons of Gwalia.

Ladies and Gentlemen, you will desire me to express, on your behalf as well as my own, our sincere and grateful thanks to the Chief Magistrate of this great City – to you my Lord Mayor- for the kindness and generous hospitality which you have extended to us on this occasion. It is to you, Sir, and your colleagues on the City Council, that we are indebted for the splendid site in Cathays Park on which the Temple of Peace and Health has been erected. Without your help and co-operation the project would have fallen to the ground, and on behalf of the Memorial Association and the Welsh Council of the League of Nations Union. and, indeed, as I hope and believe, on behalf of the people of Wales, I beg to offer you and your colleagues our heartfelt thanks.

Pensaer Caerdydd, Syr Percy Thomas yn Seremoni Agoriadol y Deml Heddwch

Nor can I forget the debt of gratitude we owe to Sir Charles Bird and his co-trustees for the care and devotion they have displayed in carrying out this enterprise. To Mr Percy Thomas we are indebted for the architectural design in which I think he has expressed, with dignity and simplicity, the ideas and aspirations for which this building stands. I am sure everyone will agree he has added another gem to the galaxy of public buildings in Cathays Park- unique, I believe, in this country, and a monument to the foresight and wise initiative of your City Fathers.

“May I also express our sincere thanks to the Contractors, Messrs. Turner and Company, for the excellence of their work, and to all our friends on the staff of the City Council, the British Legion, the “Western Mail,” the Memorial Association, the League of Nations Union and the New Commonwealth Society; especially to Sir Robert Webber, Mr Chamberlain, Mr Kennedy Hunt, Mr Alban, Mr Samways and Mr Foot, who have spared no efforts to ensure the success of our proceedings here today.

“Ladies and Gentlemen, I must confess that the opening of the Temple of peace and Health is a long cherished desire. At last it is a dream come true. Of course it may be said, “Why was this waste of ointment made? Why was this money not spent in some more direct way for the alleviation of suffering and the propagation of the gospel of peace? Well, I believe that no crusade can prosper to the highest degree, no movement can secure the best results, unless it possesses a headquarters worthy of its high calling, and it is through the medium of art and architecture. Throughout The Ages mankind has demanded its Mecca of inspiration, for where the treasure is, there will the heart will be also. The Mecca we have opened today embodies two living ideas – Health and Peace.

Twenty-seven years ago the people of Wales decided to pay a tribute to that illustrious Sovereign, King Edward VII, in the form of a crusade against the terrible scourge of tuberculosis, which for years had ravaged our country. King Edward had said, ” If preventable , why not prevented?” That was our slogan, and it is still our watchword.

At the outset the Memorial Association was a voluntary organisation, but with the passing of the National Insurance and other Acts of Parliament, it developed into a Statutory body which, in effect, is a joint or federal authority of all the contributing County and County Borough Councils In Wales. During the period of its existence the death rate from Tuberculosis in Wales and Monmouthshire has fallen from 1506 per million to 881 per million- a decrease of 42 per cent. I confess we could have wished for better and more speedy results but we believe that with adequate resources and with to cordial co-operation of every Local Authority, the day will come when, like leprosy, typhus and small-pox, this infectious disease will be entirely banished from our country. In the meantime the Temple of Health will stand as a constant reminder of our duty as individuals and as a nation to redeem this solemn pledge.

Dr Richard Price

I now come to the second idea enshrined in this building – the cause of Peace – which I believe is very dear to my fellow countrymen. We are now beginning to realise that a durable peace can only be founded upon the eternal principles of Equity and Justice. This was the doctrine preached two hundred years ago, in the 18th Century, by that great- and perhaps – the greatest – of all Welshmen, Dr Richard Price, mathematician, economist, publicist, author, philosopher and Divine, who has not only received the Freedom of the City Of London, an invitation from Congress to become a citizen of the United States, and a resolution of thanks from the National Assembly in Paris, but was also elected a member of the Royal Society. This is what he said in his book on Civil Liberty:

“Let every State with respect to all its internal concerns be continued independent of the rest; and let a general confederacy be formed by the appointment of a Senate, consisting of representatives from all the different States. Let this Senate possess the power of managing all other common concerns of the united state, and of judging and deciding between them, as a common Arbiter or Umpire, in all disputes; having at the same time, under its direction, the common force of the states to support its decisions.”

Gweithiau Haearn Mynachlog Nedd, a sefydlwyd gan Tregellis Price

Olynwyd ef gan Tregellis Price, Haearnfeistr Mynachlog Nedd, a dyngarwr diflino a ddaeth yn un o Sylfaenwyr y Gymdeithas Heddwch

Henry Richard, Tregaron, ‘Apostl Heddwch’

We also remember that for 37 years Henry Richard of Tregaron, was the energetic Secretary of this Society, which in the middle of the last century held a series of peace conferences throughout Europe, and paved the way for the establishment of the Hague Tribunal and the League of Nations.

Therefore we have reason to be proud of the part our little country has played in the promotion of this great cause. Consequently, I venture to suggest it is fitting that the first building in Great Britain to be dedicated to the cause of Peace should be erected on Welsh soil. I make bold to say it is an example which other countries may well follow, because the Temple recalls to our minds the existence of another building, erected in another small country, on the shores of lake Geneva – the Headquarters of a Confederation of Nations who have joined together in a solemn League and Covenant to resist aggression, and to settle their disputes by an appeal to reason instead of to force.

Let Temples of Peace arise throughout the world. They will be a constant reminder to each nation of its duties and responsibilities, of its loyalty and allegiance to the cause of justice and peace.

“It is true that to-day we live in an anarchic world. When we look round we find every nation feverishly re-arming itself; two sanguinary wars are still in progress, and a third has just been concluded.

The wind of madness which blew upon the world twenty years ago is not yet still. In such circumstances, some people , no doubt, will marvel at our temerity. They may even regard us insane, becauie it was Rouseau, I think, who once said that “to be sane in a world of madmen is in itself a kind of madness.” But let us not be discouraged. I remember – in 1916 – listening to a speech by Mr Lloyd George, delivered at the National Eistedfodd. I am sure we all deeply regret he was unable to accept our invitation to be here today. This is what he said: “Why should we not sing during the War? Why especially should we not sing at this stage of the War? The blinds of Britain are not down yet, nor are they likely to be. The honour of Britain is not dead; her might is not broken; her destiny is not fulfilled; her ideals are not shattered.”

Atodiad y Western Mail

I can assure you, my friends, that this building is not intended to be a mausoleum, and because at the moment dark clouds overshadow Europe and the world, that there is no reason why we should put upper the shutters and draw the blinds. On the contrary, in a world of madmen let us display constancy and courage. Let us as individuals and as a nation, humbly dedicate ourselves anew to great task remaining before us. This League of Nations, this Peace Confederacy, this new Commonwealth of Nations, can only become a reality if it is enshrined in the hearts of the peoples. Governments come and Governments go, but the peoples go on forever.

That, I venture to suggest, is the significance of the opening ceremony we have witnessed this morning.

May I express our heartfelt thanks to the devoted Welsh mother, and the mothers of the Empire and of the world who so nobly supported her, for the unique and splendid services they have rendered in kindling the imagination of our people. Mothers know from personal experience the sorrow and anguish of the war. Nevertheless, they were prepared, and I believe, if the necessity arose – which, God forbid – they would still be prepared to undergo the same intense anxiety and mental suffering in order to preserve our liberties, and to rescue the weak from the tyranny of the strong. Like the Unknown Warrior, they invite us to dedicate ourselves to a noble and righteous cause.

Is it to much to hope that every man, woman and child, from one end of our beloved country to the other, shall participate in this act of self-dedication of the people, by the people, for the people, by making a pilgrimage to this shrine? There, in a spirit of humility and with contrite hearts, let us all enlist in that might army which knows no frontiers, and is marching steadily forward towards the Empire of Right and the Citadel of Peace.”

Llwncdestun i Gaerdydd

Cynigiwyd y trydydd llwncdestun, a’r un olaf i “Arglwydd Faer a Chorfforaeth Dinas Caerdydd” gan Dr Thomas Jones, o Amlwch. Mynegodd ei foddhad dwfn y dylai fod wedi cael ei ddewis fel cynrychiolydd Gogledd Cymru i gymryd rhan yn y trafodion, a fyddai’n dod yn hanesyddol ym mywyd pobl Cymru. Ar ôl olrhain datblygiad y prosiect presennol a ddaeth i’w derfyn yn y seremoni agoriadol, dychwelodd ddiolch i Gorfforaeth Caerdydd ac yn arbennig, i’r Arglwydd Feiri olynol am y cyfraniad materol a wnaethant tuag at ei lwyddiant. Pwysleisiodd hefyd, y cysylltiad agos a oedd bob amser wedi bodoli rhwng yr ymgyrch wrth-dwbercwlosis yn Ninas Caerdydd a’r Brenin Edward VII, a mynegodd y gobaith mawr y gallai’r cynlluniau sydd bellach dan ystyriaeth ar gyfer codi Labordy Ymchwil newydd  yn “metropolis Cymru” ddigwydd yn fuan.

Wrth ymateb i’r llwncdestun, dywedodd yr Arglwydd Faer (Yr Henadur W.G. Howell):

“I want to thank Alderman Dr Thomas Jones very cordially for the kind and gracious way in which he proposed this toast. I would like to say that we in Cardiff are very proud of the valuable addition which has been made to-day to the beautiful specimens of architecture in Cathays Park. We congratulate Lord Davies upon the fruition of his labours, and upon the beauty of the building which has been erected, and we rejoice in the ideals of peace and health which it symbolises. This has been a great day for Cardiff and for Wales, for these twin ideals, so important to the well-being of a nation, have been crystallised in Temple which it is a joy to behold.

And we rejoice especially that this beautiful building has been evolved from the brain of a Cardiff man, one of our own people.

And particularly, do we welcome within our borders the women of courage from all parts of the Kingdom and from other countries who gave their sons in the service of their countries in the Great War and who gave themselves, in reality, made the supreme sacrifice. Wee glad to have the opportunity of meeting with them within the precincts of this City and shall honour and revere them and their sons as long as memory lasts. It may be some solace for them to know that the heart of this City beats in sympathy and in admiration for them.

It may be that by the proceedings of this day another blow may be struck in the cause of universal peace if the consecration of this wonderful building is to usher in more quickly the rule of law in international affairs and the reign of justice, equity and international righteousness. Then the work and labours of those who have promoted the building of the Temple of Peace and Health will have been fully and amply justified. It only remains for me to thank you all cordially for your presence and support to-day, for the many warm tributes that have been paid to this City which we so truly love and to wish success and prosperity to the great causes towards which such eloquent testimony has been borne by the various speakers.”

Daeth y digwyddiad i ben yn ddiweddarach y prynhawn hwnnw, a gadawodd y trên arbennig Gaerdydd ar gyfer Llundain am 4.20 p.m.

Derbyniad Noson Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd

Nid oedd diwedd y cinio yn dod â threfniadau’r dydd i ben o bell ffordd. Fe’i dilynwyd gan dderbyniad yn yr Ystafelloedd Connaught, lle gweithredodd yr Arglwydd a’r Arglwyddes Davies fel gwesteiwyr i rai cannoedd o gynrychiolwyr o Ganghennau Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru o bob rhan o’r wlad.

Gyda’r nos, cynhaliwyd yr hyn a ddisgrifiwyd fel, “parti cynhesu’r Undeb” yn y Deml newydd.  Gyda Mr Dudley Howe yn Gadeirydd, a’r Arglwydd Davies fel y prif siaradwr, roedd y cyfarfod yn ffynhonnell ysbrydoliaeth ac anogaeth o’r newydd i’r rheiny sydd wedi gwasanaethu mor ffyddlon a brwd i achos heddwch yn y Dywysogaeth. Dechreuodd am 7 p.m. gyda dwy funud o dawelwch, ac yna emyn, anerchiad y Cadeirydd ac anerchiad gan yr Arglwydd Davies, ac yn dilyn hynny, canwyd ail emyn.

“So ended a ceremony the memory of which will long endure in the minds of there Welsh people. But the ceremony itself was but the launching of a noble project. The task that now remains is to ensure that this national shrine shall become the focal point of our determination to serve those two great causes whose advancement it was erected to promote. Not until every Welsh man and woman and every Welsh child has made the pilgrimage to this modern Mecca, and there has renewed the pledge to fight valiantly for the achievement of the welfare of Wales and the peace of the world, will the new Temple have served its purpose.”

Lle o Bererindod, Cofio, ac Ymroddiad i Heddwch

Byddai’r Deml Heddwch, ac yn arbennig y Gell sy’n cadw Llyfr y Cofio Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf Cymru, yn dod yn fan pererindod am genedlaethau. Yr Awdur E. R. Eaton oedd y cyntaf i gael y cyfle i fyfyrio ar gofio am wrthdaro yn y gorffennol, yn sylfeini’r adeilad a fyddai’n gweithio tuag at heddwch yn y dyfodol.

‘Thoughts from the Crypt’ gan E.R.Eaton – Llyfr y Cofio fel man Pererindod


“Ysbrydolwyd gan Annie”: Hanes Deiseb Merched dros Heddwch i America, 1924

Welsh Women's Peace Petition of 1924 being presented in Washington

Hafan - Deiseb Menywod

Stori'r Ddeiseb


Erthygl #IWD2020

Welsh Women's Peace Petition of 1924 being presented in Washington

Cafodd Deiseb Merched dros Heddwch Cymru 1923, a gydlynwyd gan Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru, ei lofnodi gan 390,296 o ferched yn galw ar America i ymuno ac arwain Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd, er mwyn atal argyfwng rhyfel arall yn sgil y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf. Cyflwynodd y ddirprwyaeth o Gymru, dan arweiniad Annie Jane Hughes-Griffiths (a welir yn y llun uchod yn Washington, Mawrth 1924), y Gofeb i’r Arlywydd Calvin Coolidge, ynghyd â Chynghrair Genedlaethol y Pleidleiswyr Benywaidd a gynrychiolai filiynau o ferched America.

Yn 1923 – ar ôl i erchyllterau’r Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf ysgogi cenhedlaeth gyfan yn erbyn gwrthdaro – trefnodd merched o Gymru ymgyrch heb ei hail dros heddwch rhyngwladol. Arwyddodd 390,296 o ferched ddeiseb drwy Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru (a nodwyd yn y wasg i fod dros 7 milltir o hyd), yn galw ar America i ymuno ac arwain Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd newydd – yn galw am ‘Gyfraith nid Rhyfel’. Dyma hanes yr em hon o gasgliadau archif Teml Heddwch ac Iechyd Cymru.

Deiseb Merched dros Heddwch Cymru i America yw un o’r straeon mwyaf ysbrydoledig sydd wedi dod i’r amlwg drwy’r rhaglen ‘Cymru dros Heddwch’a ariennir gan Gronfa Dreftadaeth y Loteri dros gyfnod canmlwyddiant y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf 2014-18. Dan arweiniad Canolfan Materion Rhyngwladol Cymru mewn partneriaeth â 10 o sefydliadau mwyaf blaenllaw Cymru, archwiliodd Cymru dros Heddwch sut, yn y 100 mlynedd ers y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, yr oedd pobl wedi cyfrannu at yr ymgyrch dros heddwch – yn cynnwys cannoedd lawer o wirfoddolwyr a grwpiau cymunedol ledled Cymru yn datgelu a chydgysylltu, am y tro cyntaf, y stori genedlaethol am dreftadaeth heddwch gyfoethog Cymru.

Mae Deiseb Heddwch y Merched ei hun wedi cyfareddu miloedd o ymwelwyr â’r arddangosfa, wedi denu diddordeb gwleidyddion ac academyddion, ac wedi ysbrydoli’r broses o greu ymgyrch wedi’i harwain gan y gymuned o’r enw ‘Heddwch Nain/Mam-gu, gyda’r nod o gael Merched Cymru i weithredu dros heddwch heddiw, ar gyfer y canmlwyddiant yn 2023-4.

Mae trafodaethau yn yr arfaeth rhwng Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru a’r Sefydliad Smithsonian gyda’r bwriad o ddigideiddio llofnodion y Ddeiseb a gynhaliwyd yn Washington, ac efallai hyd yn oed eu haduno â Rhwymiad a Datganiad y Gofeb a gedwir gan WCIA, ar gyfer canmlwyddiant  2024 o’r ymgyrch ryfeddol hon.


Contents Quick References & Links

    • Hanes ‘Ailddarganfod’ y Ddeiseb
    • Hanes ‘Merched, Rhyfel a Heddwch’
    • Hanes Ymgyrch Deiseb 1923 – o’r Archifau:
      • Tarddiad y Syniad;
      • Celf Heddwch – Creu’r Gofeb;
      • Yn y Smithsonian hyd heddiw;
      • Cyflwyno Mrs Peter Hughes Griffiths ac Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru.
    • Dyddiadur Annie: Hanes y Ddirprwyaeth Heddwch i America.
      • Y Ffarwél: Llundain, Lerpwl a’r Fordaith dros yr Iwerydd
      • Efrog Newydd: Merched o Gymru ac America yn Uno
      • Washington: Cyflwyno i’r Arlywydd
      • Taith Heddwch o amgylch y Taleithiau: Chicago, Salt Lake City, Arfordir y Gorllewin a Thuag Adref
    • Effaith Deiseb Heddwch y Merched

    Y Dyfodol: Sut allwch chi Helpu?

Hanes yr ‘Ailddarganfod’

Yn 2014, yn ystod y gwaith ymchwil o sefydlu’r prosiect ‘Cymru dros Heddwch’, roedd Prif Weithredwr WCIA Martin Pollard (sydd erbyn hyn yn Brif Weithredwr Cymdeithas Ddysgedig Cymru) yn archwilio hen gyfrolau yn llyfrgell Teml Heddwch ac Iechyd Cymru. Darganfyddodd rwymiad o Ledr Moroco ag arno arysgrif haen aur cyfareddol tu hwnt:


Y tu mewn, ceir dim ond ychydig dudalennau o femrwn felwm wedi ei oliwio mewn llawysgrif arddull canoloesol o Inc India gyda datganiad o Heddwch ac Undod rhwng merched Cymru ac America – yn galw ar America i ymuno ac ymgymryd â rôl ryngwladol-flaenllaw yng Nghynghrair y Cenhedloedd i ffurfio ‘heddwch ar gyfer cenedlaethau’r dyfodol’ yn sgil y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf. Cofiai Martin Pollard:

“It was a breathtaking moment… This document commemorated a post-WW1 peacebuilding movement of vast ambition, far beyond anything we have witnessed in living memory. But how could such a story not be known as part of Wales’ story – and especially of the Temple of Peace? How could such a record have become forgotten in plain sight? Where were the signatures… and where might they be now? How was such a gargantuan effort coordinated? Who by… and who to? What happened, and what happened as a result? How might we find out…?”

Hanes ‘Merched, Rhyfel a Heddwch’

Fe wnaeth gwirfoddolwyr a grwpiau cymunedol ledled Cymru helpu i archwilio un o ‘hanesion cudd’ mwyaf diddorol Cymru am heddwch; gweithredu gan ferched Cymru ar y llwyfan rhyngwladolgreu gwell byd allan o ludw’r Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf. Mae’n ingol ystyried y gweithredoedd hyn yng nghyd-destun y 1920au cynnar: dim ond yn 1918 y cafodd y Bleidlais – yr hawl i bleidleisio – ei hymestyn i ‘ferched oedd yn berchen ar eiddo’, ac ni fyddai’n cael ei hymestyn i’r rhan fwyaf o ferched tan 1928. Yn y cyd-destun hwn, mae’r Ddeiseb Heddwch yn cynrychioli mudiad hynod o arwyddocaol a beiddgar i  ffafrio cydraddoldeb trwy ddyrchafu lleisiau merched i’r llwyfan rhyngwladol.

Gyda chymorth Ffion Fielding, Cydlynydd Arddangosfeydd ac Ymgysylltu Cymunedol prosiect Cymru dros Heddwch 2015-18, datgelodd gwirfoddolwyr ddeunyddiau archif a hyd yn oed hen ffilmiau newyddion Pathé  o Bererindod Heddwch Merched Gogledd Cymru  1926.

Dechreuodd blogiau’r gwirfoddolwyr ddod â llinynnau’r stori ynghyd:

Erbyn 2017, roedd y diddordeb a’r momentwm wedi cynyddu ymhellach, wrth i WCIA ymuno â’r Ffotonewyddiadurwr Rhyngwladol Lee Karen Stow i lwyfannu’r Arddangosfa Merched, Rhyfel a Heddwch – a ddadorchuddiwyd yn y Senedd ym mis Awst 2017, ynghyd â’r cerfluniau ‘Pabis: Weeping Window’ 14-18NOW o Dŵr Llundain, yr aeth tua   80,000 o bobl i’r gweld. Deiseb Heddwch y Merched oedd y prif atyniad, gyda’r Gofeb mewn cas arddangos ynghyd â phanel yn amlinellu ei hanes.

Ar ôl y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, daeth Deiseb Heddwch Merched yr 1920au yn uchafbwynt o fewn ‘treftadaeth heddwch’ gyfoethog o fudiadau a gweithredoedd a arweiniwyd gan ferched o Gymru, o’r rheini a gefnogodd Wrthwynebwyr Cydwybodol y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, i ‘Beth wnaeth y Swffragetiaid nesaf’, Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru a Phwyllgorau Ymgynghorol Addysgu y 1920au-30au, Balot Heddwch 1935, ac yn enwedig o fewn y CND (yr Ymgyrch dros Ddiarfogi Niwclear) o’r 1950au ymlaen – yn benodol,  Gwersyll Heddwch Merched Comin Greenham, a sylfaenwyd gan ferched o Gymru, o 1981-2000.

Wrth lunio arddangosfa ‘stori gyfan’ Cymru dros Heddwch yn 2018, nid cyd-ddigwyddiad felly oedd bod llinyn canolog enfys y Dreftadaeth Heddwch, ‘Ffafrio Cydraddoldeb’,yn cydlynu’r rôl ganolog y mae merched wedi ei chwarae yn rhyngwladoldeb Cymru dros y 100 mlynedd diwethaf.

Hanes Ymgyrch Deiseb Heddwch 1923

Mae ymchwilio i hanes ymgyrch Deiseb Heddwch y Merched 1923 wedi bod yn helfa drysor archifol ynddo’i hun, yn cynnwys llawer o wirfoddolwyr ac ymchwilwyr o Gaerdydd i Fangor ac Aberystwyth.

Tarddiad y Syniad – 1922

Mae dwy ffynhonnell yn cofnodi tarddiad syniad gwreiddiol Deiseb Heddwch y Merched: Llythyr dyddiedig Gorffennaf 3ydd 1922 gan y Parch. Gwilym Davies, Trefnydd Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru, at yr Arglwydd David Davies, Cadeirydd WLoNU, yn cynnig y syniad; ac erthygl yng nghylchgrawn ‘Welsh Outlook’ Tachwedd 1923, sy’n cofnodi:

“Trafodwyd y syniad o gychwyn mudiad heddwch ymysg merched Cymru am y tro cyntaf yn Ysgol Gwasanaeth Cymdeithasol Cymru a gynhaliwyd yn Llandrindod ym mis Awst 1922”

Cyfarfu “Cynhadledd Genedlaethol o Ferched” yn Aberystwyth ar Fai 23 1923 i gwblhau’r cynlluniau ar gyfer ymgyrch Cymru-gyfan, gan benodi dwy drefnydd: Mrs Huw Pritchard o Bwllheli (dros Ogledd Cymru a Sir Aberteifi) a Mrs E. E. Poole o Gaerdydd (dros Dde Cymru a Sir Fynwy). Apeliodd Mrs Peter Hughes Griffiths a’r Fonesig Llewellyn, fel Trysoryddion Anrhydeddus, am arian a chafwyd rhoddion tuag at gostau’r ymgyrch genedlaethol.

Yn archifau Llyfrgell y Deml Heddwch erys copïau o daflenni cofrestru oedd wedi cael eu dosbarthu i aelwydydd, trwy bwyllgorau trefnu sirol Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru; yn ogystal â chopïau o Ddatganiad Cofeb Deiseb Heddwch y Merched i’r llofnodwyr eu cadw a’u harddangos yn falch yn eu cartrefi, neu eu plygu yn eu papurau.

Mae Blwyddlyfr Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru 1924 yn cofnodi cynnydd yr ymgyrch yng Nghymru ac yn America (delweddau 10-12, tudalennau llawlyfr 16-20). Llofnodwyd y ddeiseb gan gyfanswm o 390,296 o ferched yng Nghymru a Sir Fynwy, a gynrychiolai 30% o’r boblogaeth fenywaidd (cyfanswm poblogaeth Cymru yng nghyfrifiad 1921 oedd 2,656,000).

Celf Heddwch– 1923

Mae bron yn sicr fod y Gofeb ei hun – y rhwymiad lledr hardd a’r tudalennau felwm gyda goliwio yn arddull yr adfywiad canoloesol gan Cecily West – wedi cael ei chynhyrchu yng Ngwasg Gregynog, oedd newydd ei sefydlu ac a agorwyd yn 1922 gan y chwiorydd Davies o Landinam, Gwendoline a Margaret. Eu brawd, David Davies, oedd sylfaenydd Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru a fyddai hefyd yn mynd ymlaen i sylfaenu’r Deml Heddwch. Adroddir eu hanes anhygoel yng nghyfrol hyfryd Trevor Fishlock, A Gift of Sunlight – hanes y chwiorydd Davies o Gregynog gan Wasg Gomer. Mae Cofeb Heddwch y Merched mewn arddull a deunyddiau yr un fath â rhai eraill a gynhyrchwyd gan Wasg Gregynog.

Dyluniwyd cist dderw Gymreig fawr gan Mr J. A. Hallam, i gludo’r nifer enfawr o ffurflenni llofnodi i America, gyda’r bwriad o gyflwyno’r gist i’r Amgueddfa Genedlaethol yn Washington – sy’n fwy adnabyddus ar draws y byd erbyn heddiw fel y Sefydliad Smithsonian.

Yn dilyn gohebiaeth rhwng WCIA a’r Smithsonian yn 2016, cadarnhawyd fod y gist yn dal ymhlith y casgliadau yno, ac yn 2018, cafodd Jill Evans ASE (isod) gyfle i ymweld â’r Smithsonian fel rhan o ddirprwyaeth wleidyddol, a gweld y taflenni llofnodi oedd yn dal yn y gist.

Trwy gydol 2019, yn sgil ymdrechion Heddwch Nain/Mam-gu a gefnogir gan WCIA a Sefydliad Heddwch Cymru, datblygodd gohebiaeth rhwng Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru a’r Sefydliad Smithsonian gyda golwg ar ymchwilio i’r posibilrwydd o ddigideiddio’r taflenni llofnodi, a/neu drefnu prosiect Cymru-America i ddatgelu a rhannu hanes Deiseb Heddwch Cymru i America yn ystod y cyfnod yn arwain at  Ganmlwyddiant yr Ymgyrch yn 2023-24.

Hanes Mrs ‘Peter Hughes Griffiths’, a chysylltiad ag Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru (WLoNU)

Mrs. Hughes-Griffiths, 1920s. TI Ellis Papers, NLW

Gan ymddangos yn rheolaidd mewn cofnodion a gohebiaeth yn ymwneud â chreu’r ddeiseb, Mrs Hughes-Griffiths oedd Cadeirydd Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru yng nghanol y 1920au. Yn ôl confensiwn y 1920au fodd bynnag, cyfeirir ati mewn cofnodion swyddogol gan enw ei gŵr, y   Parch. Peter Hughes Griffiths (1871-1937), oedd yn Weinidog Methodistaidd Calfinaidd uchel ei barch o Sir Gaerfyrddin.

Yn ystod rhaglen Ben blwydd y Deml yn 80 ym mis Tachwedd 2018, dywedodd Martin Pollard, awdur a phensaer gwreiddiol cais prosiect Cymru dros Heddwch, mai Mrs Hughes Griffiths y byddai ef yn ei henwebu fel ‘Adeiladwr Heddwch Mwyaf Ysbrydoledig Cymru’:

“To choose one individual story of Wales’ peace builders that really stands out (from the hundreds gathered by Wales for Peace), I would have to choose Mrs Peter Hughes Griffiths. That she is known to history only by her husband’s name (so far), rather than as a woman of clearly exceptional leadership and inspiration to thousands – a woman who was Chairman of the Welsh League of Nations Union, and oversaw the organisation of 390,296 women in signing the Peace Petition to America – is not only astonishing today, but a reminder of the journey that Welsh women have been led towards championing equality and having a voice – not just on equality issues, but on international affairs.” Martin Pollard, Learned Society of Wales

Annie Jane Ellis yng ngorsaf Aberystwyth yn 1911-12 gyda’i ffrindiau: Jane Davies, Gwyneth Williams, Annie-Jane (a’i hadwaenid bryd hynny fel Mrs T.E.Ellis) a Mary Ellis, a fyddai’n ymuno â hi ar y Ddirprwyaeth Heddwch i America yn 1924. Papurau TI Ellis, LlGC

Wedi’i chrybwyll mewn nifer o frasluniau bywgraffyddol, a chyda thros 71 o gyfeiriadau ac 20 o restrau pwnc yn Archifdy LlGC, erbyn heddiw ymddengys bod Annie Jane Hughes Griffiths yn llawn haeddu ei bywgraffiad ei hun!

Wedi’i geni yn Annie Jane Davies yn 1873 yn Llangeitho, Sir Gaerfyrddin, bu’n weithgar ym mywyd diwylliannol a gwleidyddol Cymru o oedran cynnar. Yn 1898 fe briododd â Thomas Edward Ellis (1859-99) o’r Bala, yr AS Rhyddfrydol dros Sir Feirionnydd (1886-99), un o’r rhai cyntaf i gynnig Cynulliad datganoledig deddfwriaethol i Gymru, a Phrif Chwip y Blaid Ryddfrydol (1894-95) yn ystod y cyfnod pontio rhwng Gladstone a Rosebery (gweler papurau T.E.Ellis, LlGC).

Roedd ganddynt un mab, Thomas Iorwerth Ellis (1899-1970), a ddaeth yn addysgwr amlwg, yn awdur ac yn ysgrifennydd Undeb Cymru Fydd rhwng 1943-67.

Annie Hughes Griffiths & TI (Thomas Iorwerth) Ellis

Wedi’i chrybwyll mewn nifer o frasluniau bywgraffyddol, a chyda thros 71 o gyfeiriadau ac 20 o restrau pwnc yn Archifdy LlGC, erbyn heddiw ymddengys bod Annie Jane Hughes Griffiths yn llawn haeddu ei bywgraffiad ei hun!

Wedi’i geni yn Annie Jane Davies yn 1873 yn Llangeitho, Sir Gaerfyrddin, bu’n weithgar ym mywyd diwylliannol a gwleidyddol Cymru o oedran cynnar. Yn 1898 fe briododd â Thomas Edward Ellis (1859-99) o’r Bala, yr AS Rhyddfrydol dros Sir Feirionnydd (1886-99), un o’r rhai cyntaf i gynnig Cynulliad datganoledig deddfwriaethol i Gymru, a Phrif Chwip y Blaid Ryddfrydol (1894-95) yn ystod y cyfnod pontio rhwng Gladstone a Rosebery (gweler papurau T.E.Ellis, LlGC).

Roedd ganddynt un mab, Thomas Iorwerth Ellis (1899-1970), a ddaeth yn addysgwr amlwg, yn awdur ac yn ysgrifennydd Undeb Cymru Fydd rhwng 1943-67.

Rhyngwladolwraig Gymreig Flaenllaw

Ar ôl y Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf, bu Annie Hughes-Griffiths yn ymwneud yn helaeth ag ymdrechion adeiladu heddwch rhyngwladol trwy Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru (a sefydlwyd yn 1922), gan ddod yn Gadeirydd yr undeb yn 1923 ac yn Llywydd Pwyllgor Merched WLoNU.

O fis Mai 1923, aeth ati i arwain ymgyrch Cymru-gyfan, gan gydlynu’r Ddeiseb Merched dros Heddwch Cymru a’r Gofeb i America. Ym mis Mawrth 1924, fe arweiniodd ‘ddirprwyaeth heddwch’ o dair dynes o Gymru i America: Mrs Annie-Jane Hughes Griffiths, Mrs Mary Ellis a Miss Eluned Prys.

Dyddiadur Annie: Hanes y Ddirpwyaeth Heddwch i America

Craig Owen yn darganfod Dyddiadur Americanaidd Annie Hughes-Griffiths o 1924, yn archifau Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru, Mehefin 2019.

Ym mis Ebrill 2019, roedd Pennaeth Cymru dros Heddwch, Craig Owen, yn datblygu adnodd cyfeiriadau ar gyfer Archifau Heddwch a gedwir yn Llyfrgell Cenedlaethol Cymru pan ddaeth ar draws gyfeiriad at ‘Ddyddiadur Americanaidd’ Mrs Ellis , gyda’r tag “Cymdeithasau Heddwch”, a gedwir yn archifau “Papurau T I Ellis” (Thomas Iorwerth Ellis, 1899-1970, mab Annie-Jane Hughes Griffiths).

Yn ddiddorol iawn, mae’r rhestr yn crynhoi…

SCOPE AND CONTENT: “Journal, February-March 1924, of Annie J. Hughes-Griffiths, recording her trip to America as part of the Welsh Women’s Peace Memorial, including the outward and return voyages. The journal contains references to Leila Mégane, including the part played by Hughes-Griffiths in Megane’s wedding to T. Osborne Roberts on 21 March 1924.”

Archifau Llyfrgell Genedlaethol Cymru

Gweler y tudalennau wedi’u digideiddio o Ddyddiadur Annie yma

(mynegeïr yn ôl dyddiad)

Gweler dogfen y trawsgrifiad drafft yma

  • Mae hyn ar gael ar Google Docs ar hyn o bryd, gyda gwaith yn mynd rhagddo i wella ansawdd y cofnod.

Clwb Darllen Ychydig yn Wahanol

Annie’s Book Club evening, L-R: Tracy Pallant, Katy Watson, Craig Owen, Ffion Fielding, Jane Harries, Fi Fenton, Jenny Allen.

Ym Mehefin 2019, cynhaliwyd noson ‘Clwb Darllen’ yn y Deml Heddwch – clwb darllen ychydig yn wahanol. Cytunodd pob un o’r cyfranogwyr i drawsgrifio pennod, dethol uchafbwyntiau o adroddiadau Annie, ac ymchwilio’n gryno i gyfeiriadau hanesyddol y gallent ddod o hyd iddynt ar-lein. Wrth i bob un ohonynt rannu adran, datgelwyd hanes Annie – yn deimladwy yn ei “llais” ei hun gan bod y grŵp cyfan yn darllen y geiriau yr oedd hi wedi’u hysgrifennu, ac yn profi’r daith gyda hi.

Ffilmiwyd y sesiwn gan Tracy Pallant ac Amy Peckham o Celfyddydau Cymunedol Cwm a Bro, gan greu clip fideo byr ym mis Awst o “Hanes Annie”.

“It was quite emotional journey… with not already knowing each other’s sections, Annie’s journey literally unfolded for us like a live re-enactment of her own experiences. It was a lot of fun – her hugely understated writing style, observations and insights into the norms of the time, were captivating. She might reference “a lovely meal, with a pleasant group of people listening supportively”; and then you’d find via other sources she’d actually addressed a crowd of 500 American society leaders for over an hour. Then on a following page, a eulogy to the American Cafeteria. Annie’s Diary is a very personal insight into a time of huge hope and change.” Ffion Fielding, National Museum of Wales

Tudalennau ar Goll?

Yn ystod sesiwn y Clwb Darllen, daeth yn amlwg fod rhai tudalennau ar goll gan fod yna ‘fylchau’ amlwg yn yr adroddiad (neu’r hyn a ymddangosai fel ymweliadau eithaf ‘byr’ â dinasoedd). Ar ôl dychwelyd i’r Llyfrgell Genedlaethol ym mis Gorffennaf 2019, sylwodd Craig fod 7 tudalen arall ym Mhapurau Ellis heb gael eu digideiddio – erbyn hyn mae’r rhain wedi eu hychwanegu at y set wedi’i digideiddio ar Flickr, â’r tudalennau wedi eu hailfynegeio yn ôl dyddiad. Unwaith i’r broses o drawsgrifio a mynegeio/tagio gael ei chwblhau, bydd y dyddiadur yn cael ei lawrlwytho i Gasgliad y Werin Cymru ar gyfer hygyrchedd hirdymor.

Y Ffarwél: Llundain, Lerpwl a chroesi’r Iwerydd

Rheillffordd LMS ‘Royal Scot’ – Wikimedia

A Saloon Carriage had been reserved for us through the extreme kindness of Mr Glynnne Roberts 
of Euston Station, & this was no ordinary saloon, but a Drawing Room with comfortable easy chairs, table… (research suggests he may have procured them a carriage from the stock of the Royal Train, by the then newly formed London Midland and Scottish Railway).  

Reporters were busy taking own notes, and several photos were taken by the Press Association. Mr. Goronwy Owen spoke a few words, summarising the gesture which was being dissipated between Wales and America, and wishing us God speed. I said a few words in reply, and fried thank them all adequately and fittingly. We then got aboard the train.

(Mae Annie hefyd yn rhestru llawer o ‘hoelion wyth’ y gymdeithas Gymreig ac arweinwyr gwleidyddol a ddaeth i Orsaf Euston i ddymuno’n dda i’r ddirprwyaeth ar eu taith)

Toriad papur newydd o Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru o rifyn y 5ed o Chwefror 1924 o’r  Western Mail, ag Annie Hughes Griffiths wedi’i hamgylchynu gan bobl yn dymuno’n dda iddi yng Ngorsaf Euston Llundain, yn cario’r Gofeb Heddwch i America

Mrs. Boyd Robson presented me with a beautiful bouquet of yellow daffodils tied with yellow shot green ribbon…

(Daeth y cennin Pedr prydferth hyn yn symbol o ymddangosiadau Annie ar y daith, gan oroesi’r holl ffordd i Washington ‘mewn cyflwr perffaith’!)

(In Liverpool) we got on the boat, the SS Cedric, And a representative of the White Star Line company made himself known to me and told me that the oak case containing the 390296 signatures was safely in the hold. Miss Prys, Mr Davis and myself were photographed several times.  Their return voyage to Liverpool incidentally would be on the RMS Olympic – sister ship to Titanic, which had sunk only 12 years earlier.

Leila Megane (1891-1960), Cantores Opera Mezzo-soprano, a briododd y Cyfansoddwr Osborne Roberts yn 1924. Fe deithiont o Gymru i America ar yr SS Cedric gydag Annie a Dirprwyaeth Heddwch y Merched (Wikimedia)

Leila Megane and her fiance Osborne Roberts also going on this boat she goes 1st class he 2nd class the line between 1st and 2nd is severely observed on the boat. (Leila Megane was a Welsh opera singer then at the height of her career; Annie would later play a role at their wedding). All our friends, our farewell friends, had to leave the boat about 3:15 and we left soon after 3:30 p.m. It was a dull day; but not wet. We steamed down the river and soon had tea. I found at the purser’s office about 15 telegrams, and just as many letters wishing me luck.

Mae Annie yn mynd ymlaen i ddisgrifio’r daith ar draws yr Iwerydd, o Chwefror yr 2il hyd at Chwefror yr 11eg – nad oedd yn fordaith esmwyth.

Felt sick and needy and did not go on deck a tall. Heavy rolling of boat. Took no meals in saloon, just sat about and slept and read novels. Had very little zest for anything“. However, by 10th Feb, “Had (Sunday) service in 1st Class Saloon. Leila Megane sang ‘O Fryniau Caersalem’ as a solo, & a few of us sang it over again as a chorus. After the service was over, a gentleman came & asked us if we were a Welsh choir on tour in the States… very tickled at this as our singing was truly atrocious.”

Ychydig a wyddai Annie ar y pryd y byddai, ymhen deufis, yn hebrwng Leila Megane yn ei phriodas ei hun ag Osborne Roberts! Gweler tudalen 18.

Cyrraedd Efrog Newydd: Merched Cymru ac America yn Uno

Cyrraedd Efrog Newydd o dan y Cerflun Rhyddid – Wikimedia Commons

“The Cedric took ten boats to push her up the river thro’ the ice’. Saw Statue of Liberty glowing in the sunlight. Bitterly cold wind, bright sunshine. Waited about until 12 – had hurried lunch. When at lunch, a press man came to me and said ‘Mrs Griffiths, I am from the press’. ‘I have nothing to say’, I said. ‘Oh!’ Said he – ‘we know your story of the Women of Wales Movement – but we want to take some photos – will you come to the top deck when you have finished?’ Agreed said I. So Eluned & I trotted up to the top deck 1st class – where we found four ranks of photographers awaiting us. There we were photographed quite twenty times – in different positions… and back again to 2nd class to await the coming of the Immigration Officers.

Nenlinell Efrog Newydd, 1920au-30au – Wikimedia Commons

We went on Deck & had seen Marg Ellis, Mrs Tuttle, Miss Belle Baunch & other American ladies, who had come down to meet the deputation in the Customs Shed awaiting us. Eventually they got on board and there was much hand shaking & welcoming us. The ladies all wore daffodils – I had had the daffodil bouquet (from Euston) put in cold storage when I got on the Cedric & it was beautifully fresh for our arrival in New York, so I carried it in my hand and wore my best costume and hat to greet the American ladies.

My impressions of the American women I have met today is that they are genuine & sincere in their efforts to give the Movement all the support they can. Their reception of us was so spontaneous so natural & without any of the snide and affectation of English women. They accepted us at our highest value, as Ambassadors of Peace. They did not quiz and criticise us first and ‘gradually thaw’.

Rather a blizzard when we got to New York, but better weather towards evening. After dinner we went to the Ambassador’s Hotel. The Club is very comfortable but very warm; still one gets used to the warm atmosphere & dresses accordingly.

Mae’r tudalennau canlynol yn rhoi cipolwg ar ddyddiau cyntaf Annie yn Efrog Newydd, gyda chyfweliadau â’r wasg, archebu tocynnau a threfniadau teithio, cyfarfodydd a chinawau, a llawer o arsylwadau hynod ddiddorol ar eu hargraffiadau o America – megis rhyfeddod Annie o brofiad y ‘Cafeaterea’. Ar Chwefror 18fed, croesawyd y ddirprwyaeth i ginio canol dydd mawr a drefnwyd gan Gymdeithas Genedlaethol y Bleidlais i Ferched yn America ynghyd â 9 sefydliad (yn cynrychioli 5 miliwn o ferched America) – a fyddai’n mynd ymlaen i weithio gyda’i gilydd i ffurfio’r Gynhadledd ar Achos a Gwellhad Rhyfel gyntaf. Yno, cyflwynwyd y gist dderw yn cynnwys y 390,296 llofnod gan y ddirprwyaeth Gymreig, i ferched America:

Y Gist Dderw yn cynnwys y 390,296 llofnod i Ddeiseb Merched dros Heddwch Cymru, fel y’i darluniwyd yn Adroddiad Blynyddol Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru 1924-5.

“After the luncheon we had speeches. Mrs Ruth Morgan introduced the delegation – & I gave them an address on the links that bind Wales & America together, & our act of memorial. It seemed to be appreciated. Then we three went up to the chest which had been placed on a dais & padlocks were unlocked, & we gave up the padlocks & the memorial to Mrs Ruth Morgan. Then the chest was inspected and the first question I was asked concering it was “Oes yma enwau o Sir Feirionydd” (where are the signatories from Merioneth?). Miss Sue [?] Harvard sang ‘Gwlad y Delyn‘ & ‘Hen Wlad fy Nhadau’ & thus ended one chapter in the history of the Memorial.

“Roedd yn gynulliad gwirioneddol wefreiddiol, ar raddfa gynhwysfawr y tu hwnt i unrhyw beth y gallem fod wedi ei ddychmygu.”

Washington: Cyflwyno’r Ddeiseb Heddwch i’r Arlywydd  

Union, Washington DC – Wikimedia

From Penn Rail Road Station… Got on the 12.10 train for Washington – had lunch on the train – passed thro’ Baltimore, Philadelphia & other places. An un-interesting journey: Except for the two rivers that we crossed, houses all detached & wide acres of flat country partly covered by snow. Had a comfortable journey. Met at Washington station by Mrs Eastman & her car – & drove to the American Assoc of University Women’s Clubs.

Yn dilyn deuddydd yn crwydro o amgylch Washington – yn ymweld â Chofeb Lincoln, ac yn talu teyrnged i’r cyn-Arlywydd Woodrow Wilson, pensaer Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd, a fu farw ar Chwefror 3ydd 1924, bythefnos cyn eu hymweliad – ar Chwefror 21ain 1924, cyfarfu Dirprwyaeth Heddwch Merched Cymru ac America gydag Arlywydd UDA, Calvin Coolidge. Y canlynol yw adroddiad (hynod wylaidd a chynnil) Annie o’u cyfarfyddiad â’r degfed Arlywydd ar hugain:

Y Tŷ Gwyn, cerdyn post o’r 1920au

We drove to the office of the League of Women Voters, where we were photographed. Then in charge of Mrs Morgan & Mrs Swiggelt, we all walked across to White House for an interview with President Coolidge. On entering we found the hall filled with people, reporters, photographers & others. We saw a man in charge – in plain clothes –no uniform here . . .We saw on his list of President’s Engagements for the day Feb 21st 1924: 12.15 – Mrs Hughes-Griffiths, Mrs Mary Ellis and Miss Pryce – we were shown into another room & waited there awhile with several other people, while the President’s secretary came out. Mr Sterns by name. He opened the door leading into the room where Mr Coolidge stood standing, awaiting our arrival – & we were introduced to him by Mrs Morgan.

He said words to this effect “ You are from Wales”.

I: Yes

He: And I have Welsh blood in my veins, having for an ancestor Nathaniel Davies. So you can’t get away from home.

30th US President, Calvin Coolidge (1923-29)

I: We are proud to own you as a fellow countryman.

He: Thank you, I am very glad to see you.

I: Producing the copy of the Memorial & showing it to him together with photograph of oak chest. “This is the copy of the memorial we have brought over from Women of Wales to the Women of America, and the chest containing the signatures. We hope you will allow the chest to be placed in the Smithsonian Institute for all time.”

He: I will do what I can to help you. I do not see what reason there is for it not to be placed there  – I was the President of the Institute. 

We then left the room, after being cordially pleasantly welcomed by the President, a quiet dignified man of middle height. Straight nose with the crease in his trousers a pleasant manner and voice. We went outside the White House & were besieged by an army of photographers – 9 in all. Were taken many many times. Shots have reached us this evening which are exceedingly good.

Annie-Jane Hughes Griffiths yn gafael yng Nghofeb Heddwch Merched Cymru y tu allan i’r Tŷ Gwyn, yn dilyn eu cyfarfyddiad ag Arlywydd yr Unol Daleithiau Calvin Coolidge; ynghyd â Mrs Ruth Morgan (Llywydd Cymdeithas Genedlaethol y Bleidlais i Ferched yn America), Miss Eluned Prys a Mrs. Mary Ellis.
Casgliadau TI Ellis, LlGC

Yn ystod y dydd yn Washington, yn dilyn y cyfarfod gyda’r Arlywydd Coolidge:

We started for Arlington (Cemetery), a place about 4 miles from Washington, where sleep the silent hosts who died in the war for the Union. Then we drove back past the Lincoln Memorial where Eluned took some photos. From here we went to the Photographers who took our photos outside White House. I ordered some large ones & post cards. Thence to Washington Cathedral where we saw Woodrow Wilson’s tomb with the simple inscription: Woodrow Wilson,1856-1924 (he had died just 18 days before their visit)

A beautiful building in process of building – the money to be procured before continuing to build. From there back to Club lunch – where we were entertained by the alumni of Radcliffe College, the female part of Harvard University. Made a short speech after lunch, Mrs Doyle presided.

Car i’r Sefydliad Smithsonian lle penderfynasom – !! – ar fan lle dylai’r gist dderw gael ei gosod.

Car to Smithsonian Institute where we decided – !! – on a spot where the oak chest should be placed. Had very jolly drive – back to Club. Thence to Mr. & Mrs. La Follette’s– a Senator likely to be new President & lead new party (the US Progressive Party, 1924-34) a very nice couple.

George Washington Daycherry flavour (cyfeiriad at ‘dartennau ceirios’, a gysylltir yn draddodiadol â’r Gwyliau Cenedlaethol sy’n dathlu pen blwydd yr Arlywydd 1af) – large crowd Senators’ ladies standing in a row receiving the said. The best part of this house was the great sympathy with Peace movement – “we are all interested in it, but we have different ways of setting about it.” Went to George Washington Anniversary meeting in Memorial Hall

‘Taith Heddwch’ o amgylch yr Unol Daleithiau: Mis o Ledaenu Neges Cymru, 22 Chwefror – 22 Mawrth 1924

Ar Ddydd Sadwrn, Chwefror 22ain 1924, ffarweliwyd ag Annie a’i chymdeithion o Washington ar ‘Daith Heddwch Merched Cymru’ ar draws yr Unol Daleithiau i gyd dros gyfnod o 4 wythnos.

Mrs. Ruth Morgan came to bid us goodbye, her last message being as follows:

“Mae ein mudiad, y Cyngor Cenedlaethol er mwyn Atal Rhyfel, yn ceisio gwneud un peth pendant ac yn trefnu Ymgyrch weithredol i geisio caniatâd y Senedd i gael mynediad i’r Llys Cyfiawnder Rhyngwladol Parhaol. Mae eich ymweliad â ni wedi ysgogi llawer iawn o ddiddordeb newydd, a bydd yn gymorth mawr wrth hybu ein hymgyrch, oherwydd mae llwyddiant ymgyrch o’r fath yn dibynnu yn gyfan gwbl ar ddiddordeb poblogaidd, ac mae eich neges i ni wedi ychwanegu’r cyffyrddiad hwnnw o ddrama sydd ei angen er mwyn ennyn y diddordeb hwnnw

Darganfyddwch pa effaith y cafodd y ‘datganiad o fwriad’ hwn ar fudiadau Heddwch Merched America yn y pen draw, ar dudalen 26.


Mrs. Thomas & I had been invited to meet the Deans of Women’s Colleges by Mrs. Kerr… Got to the 2nd floor where the guests, about 400 women, were assembled – but the most awful Babel of voices it has ever been my lot to hear. Prof. Merriam of Chicago University; a Dr. (Agnes) Wells, a woman of great distinction & President of the Assoc. of Women Deans, gave her report. Then Frau Schreibe gave an account of the need for brotherhood, being one of 35 members of the Reichstag 15 of which were school teachers. Then I was called upon to speak of the Memorial, did so for 15 minutes. Got home by 10.30. Very glad the ordeal was over… Mrs. Thomas said I did alright.


Mae dyddiadur Annie, yn enwedig wrth sôn am eu taith mis o hyd o amgylch America, yn hynod ddiddorol, nid yn unig am ei sylwebaeth gymdeithasol ar fudiad rhyngwladol y merched, ymgyrch heddwch a gwleidyddiaeth y cyfnod, ond hefyd am ei harsylwadau ar yr amgylchedd naturiol, y tirluniau a’r diwylliannau.

We now got to the Land of Canyons. Most wonderfully formed rocks of bright red colour. Most wonderful formation. Sphynx like in shape, formidable in appearance. Came to quite the most well-kept station on the (rail) road… ‘Morgan’ written in white stones on the station level… We hired a car & hied us to the Ogden Canyon, a distance of 11 miles. Our drive was an exceedingly well set up. Young man in knee breeches, & in passing thro the town called at his garage for his overcoat & splendid crown & yellow check coat. We drove up through the ravine or pass or canyon, thro’ snow covered rocks & hills, with here & there the hot steam appearing from the hot water springs higher up.

Salt Lake City

Mr John James is British Vice-Consul, a native of Swansea, born in Haverfordwest… Mr James told me we ought to have been at the St David’s Day Celebrations the previous evening. He wanted to see us take our message to the women of Utah: It was arranged that we two were to go… to the Mormon Temple grounds. Soon Mr Williams a Welshman from Brechfa, Carmarthenshire – the State Senator – arrived with his wife and son, in a fine motorcar… I had to tell the W.O.W. (women of Wales’) story… We went as far as the University on the hill, where one had a most splendid view of the city beneath the clearly cut snow clad mountains, like white icing so smooth and straight in appearance – a fine mist rising from the Lake in the distance was a most impressive picture.

San Francisco

We drove on to Stanford University which stands in its own grounds of 8000 acres. The buildings are of buff sandstone and they are grouped around open courts or quadrangles and are connected by continuous open arcades of arches and pillars. The no. of students at present is about 2500 – 2000 men, and 500 women…. Mr. Salisbury Williams from the harbour commission Presided, and there was singing and recitations and speeches. I spoke for about 20 minutes, and at close of meeting met Mr. & Mrs. Dunn. Mrs. Dunn is an old Aber student from Pontypool, knew me in Aber. Has been out in S F  Since August. Very homesick when I spoke to her.

Los Angeles

Almost as soon as I got into the (Gates) Hotel, a lady accosted me being anxious to have an interview with me for the Los Angeles Times. I sat and and talked with her and told her of our message, and of our visit to the Presidents Tomb in Washington. I announced that I was to speak in the evening service. The interview appeared in Monday’s paper, quite a nice article.

…through South Pasadena to 212 Brauch street. Chapel crowded. Mr. Jones’s son commenced the service very earnestly and prayerfully. Dr John Davis introduced me by questioning Sara and John Saunders, and brother john & myself. I then spoke for 40 minutes – without one note! – of our mission.

Went to office to get reservations and then drove to Hollywood. Went to West Coast Production studio, to Beverly Hills Hotel where they were shooting pictures in the garden… Then Santa Monica Ocean Park, Venice, where we went to a Chinese restaurant. Had Chow Mein and Tea in the Chinese-style. I didn’t enjoy it.

Grand Canyon

The Grand Canyon is beyond description in formation colour and effect… We went to a Morie Lecture given by 2 brothers, who had travelled through the Canyon from Colorado River right through the Gulf of Mexico, a distance of 217 miles. We saw pictures of their wonderful experiences in 2 flat bottomed boats, and the many escapades they injured and narrow escapes they had. We went over to Hopi House (the Indian Centre), saw the Indians dance. And shook hands with the chief – who had a University training. He told us he had already 4 wives, but he was still on the market.

Rhaeadr Niagara… a Dyweddïad

Mae Dyddiadur Annie yn cynnwys dwy dudalen yn adrodd hanes y wefr o gael eu tywys o dan Raeadr Niagara trwy dwneli, ac ar gwch – cipolwg diddorol iawn ar dwristiaeth y 1920au! Ond roedd gan Annie a Mary hefyd bethau pwysig ar eu meddwl yn Niagara: rhyw bryd yn ystod eu teithiau, roedd eu cydymaith Eluned Prys (a oedd gyda nhw yn Washington) wedi cymryd llwybr tra gwahanol – gyda datblygiad diddorol tu hwnt…!

We got off the train (at Niagara) and went into the station; and began wondering what we had better do about getting in touch with Eluned Prys, who had arranged to meet us at Buffalo that day. As Buffalo was 23 miles beyond Niagara, we decided to get off there and get in touch with Eluned at Lennox Hotel Buffalo – the place arranged for our meeting (They then explore Niagara Falls).

By that evening: “She was not there…. We then sent a long wire to Eluned.” By the following lunchtime: No sign of Eluned.” Finally, they decide to continue their onward train journey without her: “3.42pm when we left by train for Utica, leaving Georgette alone on the platform. We had a pleasant trip by train to Utica: passing through Buffalo, Rochester, Syracuse – where Miss Carver and her brother in law came to see us pass through. Miss Carver looked well and bonnie and was very cheery and told us the news of Eluned’s engagement to an Austrian Count!! She told us she intended sailing for home on April 5th.”

The diary shows they do finally succeed in reuniting with Eluned on Thursday March 20th, at the Women’s University Club in New York.
Efrog Newydd… a Phriodas

Ar ôl dychwelyd i Efrog Newydd, o Ddydd Mercher y 19eg o Fawrth 1924, gwnaethant ailgysylltu â’u cydymgyrchwyr o Gymdeithas Genedlaethol y Bleidlais i Ferched yn America

1925 Neges o America i Wales (Archifau Deml Heddwch / WLoNU)

Mrs (Ruth) Morgan spoke of messages which should be sent by women of America to Women of Wales in reply to their message. These replies were (to be) provided for the Annual Meeting of the Welsh Council of the League of Nations Union – in Whit week. (view here the reply as it was published in Wales). 

We had some telephone calls to see to, including one from Leila Megane, who had decided to get married the following day, and wished me to give her away! We then dressed ourselves in our evening clothes, and … went to the League of Nations Nou Panhsa Dinner at the Baltimore Hotel. I was put to sit at the speakers table between Mr Frank Emerson and Mrs James Neal. After speeches by Mrs Vanderlip, Mrs Little and Mr Levenmore, I was called up to give a 2 mins speech . It was a case of “Play up Wales”.

In the morning we went down to White Star Offices and got our tickets stamped (for the RMS Olympic).

Leila Megane (1891-1960), Cantores Opera (Wikimedia)

After a very nice lunch, French looking, we four and Mr Schang, the best man, went in a taxi to the Welsh Chapel 120th Street. (Leila) Megane dressed in a covent courting costume, light fawn with felt hat to match. (Megane got the flowers meant for Eluned). Rev Jospeh Evans performed the ceremony in Welsh, and I gave the bride away. There were a few spectators – including Mr and Mrs Mrs Hughes, and Mrs Cobinga Bright and her little girl. At 5.30pm the bride and groom arrived and we had a sumptuous dinner.

We then all went along to the Welsh Church where a reception had been arranged in our honour – Dr Keigwhi Dr Keigwhi presided the Minister of one of the Presbyterian Churches in New York – Addresses of welcome were delivered by Rev. Josepth Evans on behalf of the Welsh Churches of the city, by ladies representing different societies. I spoke for about 25 minutes, giving the message.

Hon oedd ‘neges heddwch’ olaf Annie oddi wrth ferched Cymru i ferched America, gan gwblhau eu taith o amgylch yr Unol Daleithiau.

Y bore trannoeth, cychwynasant ar eu mordaith 7 diwrnod adref i Lerpwl, ar yr RMS OIympic, chwaer-long i’r RMS Titanic – oedd wedi suddo gwta ddeuddeg mlynedd yngynt, ar ei mordaith gyntaf yn 1912 o Southampton i Efrog Newydd.

Mae cofnodion dyddiadur Annie o’r daith adref dros yr Iwerydd yn gorffen gyda’r myfyrdod:

Rhyfeddol mor dda mae Duw wedi bod i ni heb na hap na damwain…Diolch lddo!

Tudalen Nodiadau

Mae tudalennau cefn dyddiadur Annie yn cynnwys nodiadau a brasluniau o’i theithiau, rhai ohonynt i’w gweld yn sôn am areithiau yr oedd yn eu hoffi. Roedd un nodyn o’r fath yn ymwneud â’r Arlywydd o’r Unol Daleithiau a fu farw’n ddiweddar, oedd wedi sylfaenu Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd 4 blynedd yn unig ynghynt:

Roedd Woodrow Wilson yn ddelfrydwr, a ddioddefodd dynged y rhan fwyaf o ddelfrydwyr gyda balchder:

“Byddai’n well gennyf fethu mewn achos y gwn a fydd yn fuddugol rhyw ddydd, nag ennill mewn achos y gwn a fydd yn methu rhyw ddydd”

Mae ei nodiadau hefyd yn cynnwys myfyrdodau personol tu hwnt o ddiddorol am ei hargraffiadau o rai o ‘Ddinasoedd Mawrion’ America:

  • Efrog Newydd … dinas o uchderau
  • Washington…  dinas o adeiladau hardd
  • Chicago … dinas o hydoedd – Michigan Avenue yn 60 milltir o hyd!
  • Utica … dinas o rodfeydd hardd
  • Salt Lake City… dinas o Formoniaid
  • San Francisco… dinas o fryniau
  • Los Angeles … dinas o faestrefi hardd

Diolch i Wirfoddolwyr ein ‘Clwb Darllen’

Llawer o ddiolch i’r ‘Tîm Trawsgrifio’ a chyfranogwyr y Clwb Darllen a wirfoddolodd oriau lawer, dros gyfnod byr o amser, i drawsgrifio, ymchwilio a rhannu Dyddiadur Annie.

  • Craig Owen, WCIA
  • Ffion Fielding, Amgueddfa Cymru
  • Fi Fenton, Amgueddfa Cymru
  • Martin Pollard, Cymdeithas Ddysgedig Cymru
  • Jane Harries, Cydlynydd Ysgolion Heddwch WCIA
  • Katy Watson, Ysgol Gynradd Alaw
  • Jenny Fletcher, Hub Cymru Africa
  • Stuart Booker, Ymchwilydd Doethurol o Brifysgol Abertawe
  • Meinir Harries, Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru
  • Tracy Pallant, Celfyddydau Cymunedol Cwm a Bro
  • Amy Peckham, Celfyddydau Cymunedol Cwm a Bro

Effaith Deiseb Heddwch y Merched

Arlywydd yr Unol Daleithiau Calvin Coolidge gyda dirprwywyr o ‘Gynhadledd ar Achos a Gwellhad Rhyfel’ 1925’
yn Washington. Llun: Kai’s Coolidge Blog’

Roedd Adroddiad Undeb Cynghrair y Cenhedloedd Cymru ar 1925, ‘Heddwch i Gymru a’r Byd’ yn canmol ymdrechion Dirprwyaeth Heddwch y Merched, a hefyd yn cynnwys ‘llythyr o ymateb’ (delwedd 8 mewn sgan / tudalen 12 o’r blwyddlyfr) oddi wrth Mrs Carrie Chapman Catt, Arlywydd Cymdeithas Genedlaethol y Bleidlais i Ferched yn America, yn dilyn eu Cynhadledd ar Achos a Gwellhad Rhyfel gyntaf.

Wedi’i chynnal yn 1925 gan 9 sefydliad (yn cynrychioli 5 miliwn o ferched America) a ddygwyd ynghyd i ddechrau ar gyfer ymweliad dirprwyaeth Deiseb Merched dros Heddwch Cymru, roedd  cynhadledd gyntaf CCCW mor llwyddiannus, fe’u cynhaliwyd bob blwyddyn hyd at 1941. Ar ôl yr Ail Ryfel Byd, parhaodd gwaith CCCW fel y ‘Pwyllgor Addysg ar Heddwch Parhaol’.

Yn y pen draw, ni ymunodd America â Chynghrair y Cenhedloedd; a chydnabyddir bod y Gynghrair wedi methu i raddau helaeth oherwydd diffyg cefnogaeth gan bwerau byd hanfodol (fel America, yr Almaen a Japan), ac am i lywodraethau aelodau ‘beidio â chwarae yn ôl eu rheolau eu hunain’ (fel Ffrainc, Gwlad Belg, yr Almaen, Rwsia a’r Eidal). Gosodwyd y llwyfan ar gyfer yr Ail Ryfel Byd gan Argyfyngau Manshwria ac Abysinia yn y 1930au, ac esgyniad Hitler yn yr Almaen Natsïaidd, a fu’n gwegian yn sgil atgyweiriadau’r Rhyfel Byd Cyntaf.

Fodd bynnag, cafodd gwersi’r Gynghrair – a’r weledigaeth a fynegwyd gan fudiadau merched Cymru ac America yn 1923-6 – eu gwireddu o’r diwedd ar ôl yr Ail Ryfel Byd pan sefydlwyd y Cenhedloedd Unedig, sefydliad y mae America wedi chwarae rôl flaenllaw ynddo trwy hanes (er bod ymneilltuadau diweddar gan Weinyddiaeth Trump  yn tanseilio cynnydd o ran heddwch, hawliau dynol a newid yn yr hinsawdd).

Y Daith o Ailddarganfod

Mae WCIA yn ddiolchgar dros ben i Tracy Pallant ac Amy Peckham, o Gelfyddydau Cymunedol Cwm a Bro / Oasis, am greu ffilm fer am brofiad ein gwirfoddolwyr o ddatgelu’r hanes a geir yn Nyddiadur Annie, ac y gellir ei gweld ar YouTube.

Mae’r athrawes Katy Watson wedi defnyddio’r dyddiadur i ysbrydoli plant yn Ysgol Gynradd Alaw, y Rhondda,  trwy brosiectau trawsgwricwlaidd ar Hanes, Daearyddiaeth, Saesneg a Mathemateg, fel peilot ar gyfer Cynllun Ysgolion Heddwch WCIA. Gwrandewch ar sut y gall Hanes Annie ddal i ysbrydoli ein ‘Heddychwyr y Dyfodol’ heddiw… 100 mlynedd yn ddiweddarach!

Canmlwyddiant Deiseb Heddwch y Merched, 2023-24 – Allwch chi helpu?

Mae WCIA yn gobeithio adeiladu ar y gwaith hwn ar y cyd â Sefydliad Heddwch Cymru, y Llyfrgell Genedlaethol ac Amgueddfa Cymru, Heddwch Nain/Mam-gu, a phartneriaid eraill dros y blynyddoedd nesaf, felly erbyn 2023 – canmlwyddiant Deiseb Heddwch y Merched – gobeithio y gallwn ddatgelu a rhannu’r hanes yn llawn er mwyn ysbrydoli cenhedlaeth newydd o gydwladolwragedd ledled Cymru.

Pe hoffech gyfrannu at y prosiect ysbrydoledig hwn – trwy ymchwil wirfoddol, digideiddio / trawsgrifio, prosiectau ysgol neu gymunedol, neu nawdd / rhoddion tuag at lunio Rhaglen Ganmlwyddiant – cysylltwch â